Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – The Do and Do not's list

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United State.
 1. Emphysema, a type of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is defined as a long term and progressive condition cause of shortness of breath but depending to the stage of lung function as a result of damage to tissues of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. In the study of 63 patients with stable COPD (spirometric GOLD stages 2–4) and 17 age- and comorbidity-matched controls, researchers found that in contrast to asthma, COPD is characterised by elevated concentrations of both BDNF and TGF-beta1 in serum. The stage-dependent association with lung function supports the hypothesis that these platelet mediators may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD(1). In some cases, but rarely, Emphysema is caused by Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema.
2. Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the lung’s bronchi cause of the increased production of mucus in the lung of that leading to difficult breathing.
E. Preventions
1. Quit smoking, if you don’t, do not try as smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with low levels of the protein alpha-1 antitrypsin are susceptible to develop the disease. Tobacco smoke is a complex chemical aerosol containing at least 8000 chemical constituents, either tobacco derived or added by tobacco product manufacturers(29a)
2. If you working in the occupation in the environment exposure of exposures coal mine dust, silica, welding fume, textile dust, agricultural dust, cadmium fume, etc., please be cautious to avoid the development of the disease(30)
3. Prevent Vitamin D deficiency
In the study of the Effects of vitamin D on immune disorders with special regard to asthma, COPD and autoimmune diseases, researchers at the School of Medicine, Semmelweis University, showed that VD supplementation in most related studies reduced the prevalence of asthma. VD supplementation may be useful in the prevention or adjunct treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(31).
4. Vitamin C, D, E, A, beta and alpha carotene
In the study of a systematic literature review performed on the association of vitamins and COPD. The role of vitamin supplements in COPD, showed that various vitamins (vitamin C, D, E, A, beta and alpha carotene) are associated with improvement in features of COPD such as symptoms, exacerbations and pulmonary function. High vitamin intake would probably reduce the annual decline of FEV1(32).
5. Antioxidants
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inflammatory lung diseases that are characterized by systemic and chronic localized inflammation and oxidative stress. In the study to elevate amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from inflammatory cells, increased levels of ROS, either directly or via the formation of lipid peroxidation products, may play a role in enhancing the inflammatory response in both asthma and COPD, researchers at the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, showed that a combination of antioxidants may be effective in the treatment of asthma and COPD(33).
6. Eat your vegetables and fruit
In the study to assess whether the risk of certain chronic diseases can be reduced by increased consumption of vegetables or fruit by the general public, and what strength of evidence has to be allocated to such an association, showed that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD, and RA indicate that an increase in vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to the prevention of these diseases(34). Guidelines from the US National Cancer Institute (103) recommend consumption of five servings of fruit and vegetables daily, corresponding to a vitamin C intake exceeding 200 mg. Dietary surveys carried out in the US population indicate that less than 12 percent of US children and adults meet this recommended level of intake (104). Diet appears to be an important cofactor in the development of obstructive lung disease, although data are still sparse(32a).
7. Etc. 
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(1) http://respiratory-research.com/content/13/1/116/abstract
(29a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227851
(30) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1513231/
(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23234453
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134250
(32a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12192737

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