Thursday, 28 November 2013

Cerebral aneurysm Treatments in Herbal Medicine

Cerebral aneurysm is defined as a cerebrovascular disorder causes of the blood vessel to bulge or balloon out of the wall of a blood vessel as a result of the weaken of blood vessels and veins and occurred mostly at the bifurcations and branches of the large arteries located at the Circle of Willis.
A.2. In herbal medicine perspective
1, Black Cohosh is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Actaea, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, native to eastern North America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as analgesic, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue anti-inflammatory agent and to treat rheumatism, symptoms of menopause, uterine cramps and muscle pain, etc.. Native Americans have used the root of the herb to treat snake bite.
a. Alternative to hormone replacement therapy
Black cohosh contains high amount of phytoestrogen of which helps to occupied the estrogen receptors or enhances the estrogen levels in the women in the stage of menopause, thus it may be considered as alternative to estrogen therapy, according to the study of "Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause?" by Mahady GB, Fabricant D, Chadwick LR, Dietz B., posted in PubMed(83)

b. Antioxidants
Polyphenols in Black cohosh may be considered as an antioxidant which help to fight against the forming of free radicals cause of DNA damage and guarding our body against foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus, according to the study of "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) protects against menadione-induced DNA damage through scavenging of reactive oxygen species: bioassay-directed isolation and characterization of active principles" by Burdette JE, Chen SN, Lu ZZ, Xu H, White BE, Fabricant DS, Liu J, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI, Van Breemen RB, Pezzuto JM, Bolton JL., posted in PubMed(84)

c. Anti-inflammation
Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh)have exerted inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide production by reducing iNOS expression without affecting activity of the enzyme, according to the study of "Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh) extracts in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages" by Schmid D, Gruber M, Woehs F, Prinz S, Etzlstorfer B, Prucker C, Fuzzati N, Kopp B, Moeslinger T., posted in PubMed(85)

2. Dang Qui (Angelica sinensis) is a herb of Genus Angelica from the family Apiaceae, indigenous to China. The herb has been used as a Queen herb in traditional Chinese medicine antispasmodic and vasodilatory agent, and to balance the hormones in women for a normal menstrual cycle and menstruation and strengthen heart, spleen, kidneys, and liver for both men and women, etc. In other words, it is used to treat gynecological ailments, fatigue, mild anemia and high blood pressure. It has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, etc.
a, Inflammatory effect
In the investigation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) and its anti-inflammatory effort found that AS EtOAc extract significantly inhibited NF-kappaB luciferase activity and TNF-alpha, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and NO secretions from LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The AS1 and PDTC groups, but not AS2, had significantly higher survival rate than the control group. This was characterized by the inhibition of the serum TNF-alpha and IL-12p40 levels after LPS injection (p<0.05). The major compounds of AS, ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide, also significantly decreased NF-kappaB luciferase activity, which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of AS, according to "Inhibitory effects of Angelica sinensis ethyl acetate extract and major compounds on NF-kappaB trans-activation activity and LPS-induced inflammation" by Chao WW, Hong YH, Chen ML, Lin BF.(86)

b. Ischemia and Neurodegeneration
In the observation of 4 medical plants: astragali, ligusticum wallichii, angelica sinensis and carthamus tinctorius (saffron) have been the major medicines to treat ischemia for hundreds of years in China, Korea and Japan and theirs effects on Ischemia and Neurodegeneration found that The herbs have demonstrated the neuroprotective efficacy of the combination of these phyotmedicines on mitigating brain infarction and global ischemia as well as preventing the neurodegeneration following ischemia. Owing to their multi-function, including improving cerebral blood circulation, they therefore have the potential to alleviate the symptoms of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), according to the study of "Polyphenols and Neuroprotection against Ischemia and Neurodegeneration" by Lin B.(87)

c.  Immunomodulatory functions
In the evaluation of Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) and their effects on immune system found that RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled, according to "Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients' by Zhuang SR, Chiu HF, Chen SL, Tsai JH, Lee MY, Lee HS, Shen YC, Yan YY, Shane GT, Wang CK.(88)

d. Hypertension
In the investigation of Z-ligustilide, the main lipophilic component of the essential oil of Danggui on aortic tension induced by phenylephrine of Radix Angelica sinensis, and its anti-hypertensive effect found that ligustilide can significantly reduce the phenylephrine-induced aortic tension in vitro with IC(50) about 64 mug/ml, but has no in vivo effect on systolic blood pressure in SHR rats when administrated orally. The data on transport of ligustilide across Caco-2 monolayer suggested an efficient intestinal absorption of ligustilide in vivo, implying that the non-effectiveness of ligustilide in vivo is not due to the poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, according to "Ligustilide reduces phenylephrine induced-aortic tension in vitro but has no effect on systolic pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats" by Du JR, Yu Y, Yao Y, Bai B, Zong X, Lei Y, Wang CY, Qian ZM.(89)

3. Hawthorn is a shrubs and trees of the genus Crataegus, belonging to the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat heart disease and symptoms of heart diseases such as irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, chest pain, hardening of the arteries, etc., circulatory disorders and respiratory illnesses.
a, Hypotensive effects
In the investigation of Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) leaves, flowers and berries used by herbal practitioners in the UK to treat hypertension in conjunction with prescribed drugs indicated that this is the first randomised controlled trial to demonstrate a hypotensive effect of hawthorn in patients with diabetes takin, according to "Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial" by Walker AF, Marakis G, Simpson E, Hope JL, Robinson PA, Hassanein M, Simpson HC(90)

b. Cardiac effects
In the evaluation of the potential cardiac effects of two alcohol extracts of commercially available hawthorn found that the mechanism of cardiac activity of hawthorn is via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and intracellular calcium concentrations are influenced, according to "A comparison of the effects of commercially available hawthorn preparations on calcium transients of isolated cardiomyocytes" by Rodriguez ME, Poindexter BJ, Bick RJ, Dasgupta A.(91)

c. Cardiovascular disease
In the analyzing the effect of hawthorn in prevention and protection of cardiovascular disease indicated that these beneficial effects may in part be due to the presence of antioxidant flavonoid components. While a number of studies have been performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hawthorn, an international, multicenter, prospective clinical study including a large number of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III heart failure patients is ongoing to test hawthorn's long-term therapeutic effects, according to "Hawthorn: potential roles in cardiovascular disease"by Chang WT, Dao J, Shao ZH.(92)

4. Maitake Mushroom is an edible mushroom in the genus Grifola, belonging to the family Meripilaceae, native to Japan. The herb has been used as liver protector and to enhance immune function, maintain health, preserve youth, increase longevity, etc.
a. Hypertension
In the assessment of effect of two commercially-available fractions labeled SX and D derived from the edible maitake mushroom in overcoming many age-associated metabolic perturbations, found that maitake mushroom fractions lessen age-related hypertension, at least in part, via effects on the RAS; enhance insulin sensitivity; and reduce some aspects of inflammation--actions that should lead to a longer, healthier life span, according to "Maitake mushroom extracts ameliorate progressive hypertension and other chronic metabolic perturbations in aging female rats" by Preuss HG, Echard B, Bagchi D, Perricone NV.(93)

b. Hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hepatitis
In the investigation of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and the effect of polysaccharide compounds in health-promoting potential, found that the D-fraction, the MD-fraction, and other extracts, often in combination with whole maitake powder, have shown particular promise as immunomodulating agents, and as an adjunct to cancer and HIV therapy. They may also provide some benefit in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hepatitis(94)

c. Antioxidant properties
In the The optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for mycelial growth in wheat by culinary-medicinal maitake mushroom and its health benefits found that that fermented wheat was effective in antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Total phenol contents of both extracts were 13.35 and 23.01 mg/g, respectively. according to "Preparation of culinary-medicinal maitake mushroom, Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) S.F. Gray (Aphyllophoromycetideae)-fermented wheat and its antioxidant properties" by Huang SJ, Tsai SY, Lin SY, Liang CH, Lian PY, Mau JL.(95)

5. Motherwort is a perennial plant in the genus Leonurus, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to the Central Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine in Central Europe, Asia and North America as relaxed agent to treat nervousness, insomnia, heart palpitation, promote milk flow, uterine contractions, menstrual flow and to relieve menopausal symptoms and menstrual complaints.
a. Cardiac and electrophysiological effects
In the investigation of European Lamiaceae Leonurus cardiaca (Ph.Eur.) used for centuries as a remedy against tachyarrhythmia and other cardiac disorders with aqueous Soxhlet extract, found that mapping experiments with 256 electrodes on the heart surface showed a reduction of left ventricular pressure and an increase of relative coronary flow at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL LCRE. Furthermore, the PQ-interval was prolonged and both the basic cycle length and the activation recovery interval increased, according to "Cardiac and electrophysiological effects of primary and refined extracts from Leonurus cardiaca L. (Ph.Eur.)" by Ritter M, Melichar K, Strahler S, Kuchta K, Schulte J, Sartiani L, Cerbai E, Mugelli A, Mohr FW, Rauwald HW, Dhein S.(96)

b. Cerebral protection
In the analyzing neuroprotective effects of purified Herba Leonuri (pHL) were evaluated in Wistar rats undergone middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) found that Under the treatment of pHL, the infarct volume was reduced significantly from 20.75+/-0.03% to 15.19+/-0.02% (p<0.05). The neurological impairment was alleviated to 1.82 as compared to vehicle (2.43). Plasma antioxidant concentration was increased from 0.31+/-0.03 mM to 0.42+/-0.05 mM (p<0.05). DNA oxidative damage was reduced to 1.19+/-0.03 in stroke pHL treated group (p<0.05 as compared to vehicle group, 1.78+/-0.03). pHL could reduce the level of apoptosis and also the pro-apoptotic proteins, but increase the level of anti-apoptotic proteins, according to "Cerebral protection of purified Herba Leonuri extract on middle cerebral artery occluded rats" by Loh KP, Huang SH, Tan BK, Zhu YZ.(97)

6. Etc.
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