Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Bronchiectasis (Respiratory Disease)Preventions – The do and do not’s list

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions, affecting the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
Bronchiectasis  is defined as a condition chracterized by the damage of the localized, irreversible dilation of part of the bronchial tree and the walls of the large airways of the lung as a result of the destruction of the lung muscles and elastic tissues. Bronchiectasis can be present alone, but in most cases, it is a disease coexisted with patient of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
F. Preventions
F.1. The do and do not’s list
1. Quit smoke and avoid air polution
As the disease developed as late complications of a smoke inhalation injury. If you are constantly working in dusty or air polution environment, prevent inhaling with proper air mask(14, 14a).
2. Enhance immune function to prevent inflections caused by bacteria and virus
Bronchiectasis is a chronic, progressive lung disease where there is irreversible, abnormal dilatation of one or more bronchi, with chronic airway inflammation,  associated chronic cough and sputum production, recurrent chest infections, and airflow obstruction. According to the study by Imperial College London, National Heart & Lung Institute, abnormalities in innate and adaptive immunity may predispose to bronchiectasis at both stages. Recent immunogenetic evidence suggests that there may be a link between the level of natural killer (NK) cell activation and disease susceptibility, implicating a predisposing role for innate immune mechanisms(38).
3. Proper treatment of lung infection
As the progression of the infection and inflammation can lead to chronic cough and sputm and recurrent chest infections,  airflow obstruction
4. Prevent lung damage causes of broncholithiasis
In the study to to determine the relationships between ventilation distribution outcomes and the presence and extent of structural damage as assessed by chest CT in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF), found that chest CT and pathology outcomes were available in 49 infants (31 male) with bronchiectasis and air trapping present in 13 (27%) and 24 (49%) infants, respectively. The presence of bronchiectasis or air trapping was associated with increased M(2)/M(0) but not LCI or M(1)/M(0). There was a weak, but statistically significant association between the extent of air trapping and all ventilation distribution outcomes(39).
5. Avoid children to inhale small objects of which can to stick to the small air way and increase the risk of broncholithiasis.
6. Eat your fruit and vegetables
Fruits and vegetables contain high amount of antioxidants which can promote immune function in fighting against the foreign invasion cause of infection, such as bacteria and virus. There is
the evidence on the association between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and risk of chronic disease(40).
7. Etc.
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