Saturday, 23 November 2013

Benign lung tumors- Symptoms and Types

Benign lung tumors, growth from many different structures in the lung, is defined as a conditions of abnormal  cell growth with no tendency of spreading or masses that push normal cells out of the way rather than invading surrounding tissue restricted to a limited area in the lung. Approximately one out of 500 chest radiographs shows the incidental finding of a solitary pulmonary nodule and almost one half of these pulmonary lesions are caused by a tumor. Unfortunately, only 2% to 5% of all lung tumors are of benign origin, e. g. lipoma, fibroma, hamartoma, and chondroma, and the majority are malignant neoplasms, most commonly primary lung cancer followed by metastases of extrapulmonary primary carcinomas. According to the study by Universitätsklinik für Pneumologie(a)
A. Symptoms
Some patients with benign lung tumors are experience no symptoms and most cases of benign lung tumors are found in routine examination, but in some patients the abnormal cells growth have affect the lung fucntion and cause symptoms of wheezing, coughing that lasts or coughing up blood, Shortness of breath, etc. In the study to assess the clinical characteristics, chest imaging, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of clear cell tumor of the lung (CCTL)of  age of the patients was (44 ± 18) years, with equal sex distribution, found that in most of the patients, the lesions were incidentally found during routine examinations. Chest roentgenogram or CT scan showed a homogenous, rounded opacity (solitary nodule) of (3.2 ± 1.4) cm in diameter. Contrast-enhanced CT scans revealed a sign of intense enhancement because of these tumors were highly vascular, containing capillaries and sinusoidal vessels in some patients(1).

B. Types of bengin lung tumors
B.1. Hamartomas
According to the statistic, Hamartomas constitute 8% of solitary lung nodules and 75% of benign nodules. It is defined as a benign tumor-like nodule composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues of  the lung’s lining and of fat and cartilage, etc. According to the study by Yenepoya Medical College, there is a report of a case of a 74-year-old male who had a lung mass that did not progress over 4-year on chest radiograph. The CT-guided FNAC smears showed benign bronchial epithelial cells, fibro-myxoid spindle cell stroma and fat spaces that aided the diagnosis of pulmonary hamartoma avoiding surgical intervention(2).

B.2. Bronchial adenomas
Changes in the lung tissue in bronchial adenomas are not dependent on their histological structure, but on the anatomical form of growth, localization and duration of the existence. In relation to the mechanism of the development, lung tissue changes may arise as a result of invasive tumor growth, hypoxia, and impaired drainage function of the bronchi, toxico-immunological disturbances(3).

B.3. Rare neoplasms
Rare neoplasms are benign lung tumors  made up of connective tissue or fatty tissue. Pulmonary papillary adenomas are rare neoplasms that predominantly occur in the periphery of the lung. There is a report of a 24-year-old male with a 6.0-cm spherical mass found incidentally at the periphery of the left upper lobe by imaging. Enucleation of the neoplasm was performed with intraoperative frozen section analysis. The tumor histologically showed papillary proliferations containing fibrovascular cores lined by a single layer of tumor cells that lacked atypia, mitoses, or necrosis(4).

B.4. Etc. 


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