Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Asthma (Respiratory Disease) – :The do and do not’s list

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
I. Asthma 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood. In the study of 463,801 children aged 13-14 years in 155 collaborating centres in 56 countries. Children self-reported, through one-page questionnaires, symptoms of these three atopic disorders. In 99 centres in 42 countries, a video asthma questionnaire was also used for 304,796 children, found that for asthma symptoms, the highest 12-month prevalences were from centres in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Republic of Ireland, followed by most centres in North, Central, and South America; the lowest prevalences were from centres in several Eastern European countries, Indonesia, Greece, China, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, India, and Ethiopia(1). In the United States, approximately, asthma affects 25 million people, 7 million of them are children.
E. Preventions
E.1. The do and do not’s list to prevent asthma and asthma attack
1. Breast feeding
Breast feeding is considered to have a protective effect against asthma in children and prolonged breastfeeding was shown to reduce the risk of allergic and respiratory diseases, according to the study by the Dept. of Medical Statistics & Epidemiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, exclusive breast-feeding prevents development of allergic diseases in children. The main factors associated with breastfeeding for allergic diseases were being the first baby, maternal history of asthma, and parental history of allergic rhinitis. The study findings opens a big avenue for interventional role of breastfeeding(49). But longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid foods did not prevent the onset of asthma, eczema or atopy by age 5 years(50).
2. Lose weight if you are Obese
Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. According to study,
asthma in the obese patient might be more responsive to leukotriene modifiers, orchestrated by leptin and/or adiponectin derived from adipose tissue, than to inhaled corticosteroids, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying airway inflammation in obese vs. non-obese asthmatics.In conclusion, overweight and obesity is associated with poorer asthma control and, very importantly, overall poorer response to asthma therapy compared with normal weight individuals(51).
3.  Prevention of occupational asthma
Prevention of occupational asthma related to a work-sensitizing agent ideally would be achieved by avoidance of exposures that cause immunologic sensitization and subsequent asthma.
Education measures for workers to understand the meaning of work-related respiratory symptoms and appropriate workplace safety measures have not been formally evaluated but may also be expected to enhance protective measures and lead to earlier diagnosis, according to the study by Toronto Western Hospital(52).
4. Quit smoking and avoid second smoke
As smoking is considered as one of the major cause of asthma and second hand smoke can cause asthma to children and adult if exposing to a prolonged period of time.
5. Enhancing your immune system to prevent viral infection causes of asthma
6. Avoid asthma triggering allergens if you are diagnosed with allergens cause of asthma

7. Traditional Mediterranean diet
In a cross-sectional survey of 690 children aged 7-18 years in rural Crete, whose parents completed a questionnaire on their child’s respiratory and allergic symptoms and a 58-item food frequency questionnaire,researchers at the University of Crete found that a beneficial effect of commonly consumed fruits, vegetables and nuts, and of a high adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet during childhood on symptoms of asthma and rhinitis. Diet may explain the relative lack of allergic symptoms in this population(53).
8. Etc.
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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9643741
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17456214
(51) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23258582 
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20424999
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17412780

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