Tuesday, 7 August 2018

Papaya, The Tropical Fruit Which Normalizes Red (RBC) and White Blood Cell (WBC) Counts and Hemoglobin (Hb) Concentration Against Anemia

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Anemia is characterized by a deficiency in the hemoglobin of the red blood cells, diminished the ability of the blood to transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide from the body

The condition is the most common blood syndrome in the U.S, affecting approximately .6% of the general population.

According to common belief, people with chronic diseases are the most at risk to develop anemia.

Some researchers suggested that genetic mutation can also cause anemia. Children born with gene mutation are associated highest risk of the condition.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells. 

Women are susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia because of the blood loss from menstruation.

Older adults who follow a poor diet pattern and some medical conditions also increase the risk of development of anemia.

Sadly, long-term intake of certain conventional medication such as Cephalosporins, Dapsone,... and  Levodopa has a strong effect in the induction of the disease too.

 The joint study lead by the Maulana Azad Medical College went further to suggest, "The prevalence of anemia was 79.9% according to the WHO criteria of hemoglobin <12 g/dl in females. Age, education, marital status, financial dependence, diagnosed chronic disease, diet, calorie intake, history of worm infestation, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with anemia on univariate analysis".

Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belonging to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries

Chemical constituents
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone, etc.(a).

According to Covenant University, Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil, exhibited particular antisickling properties coupled with the potential to reduce stress in sickle cell patients(1).

 In beta-hemoglobinopathies, fermented papaya preparation (FPP), increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells (RBC), and decreased  reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), through ameliorating oxidative status, without a significant change in the hematological parameters, probably due to its additional function as an iron chelator(2)

According to the Hebrew University Medical Center study, oral administration of FPP to beta-thalassemic mice (50 mg/mouse/day for 3 months) and to patients (3 g x 3 times/day for 3 months), reduced all the aspects of oxidative stress (p < 0.001 in mice and patients).

Furthermore, The preparation also alleviated symptoms associated with oxidative stress in severe forms of thalassemia(3) as well as a significantly reduced number of sickle cells(4).

People who have anemia or are at higher risk of anemia incidence may want to add a portion of papaya into their diet.

Taken together, whole food papaya and its fermented products may be used in combination with standard therapy in attenuated symptoms and treatment of all forms of anemia.



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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.



References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed) (a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus caricacultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease by Afolabi IS1, Osikoya IO, Fajimi OD, Usoro PI, Ogunleye DO, Bisi-Adeniyi T, Adeyemi AO, Adekeye BT.(PubMed)
(2) Amelioration of oxidative stress in red blood cells from patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and E-beta-thalassemia following administration of a fermented papaya preparation by Fibach E1, Tan ES, Jamuar S, Ng I, Amer J, Rachmilewitz EA. (PubMed)
(3) Fermented papaya preparation as redox regulator in blood cells of beta-thalassemic mice and patients by Amer J1, Goldfarb A, Rachmilewitz EA, Fibach E(PubMed)
(4) Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit® by Iweala EE1, Uhegbu FO, Ogu GN.(PubMed)
(5) Magnitude and Correlates of Anemia in Elderly Women of a Resettlement Colony of Delhi by Singh T1, Nagesh S2, Ray TK(PubMed)