Thursday, 9 August 2018

A Fruit That Is Better Than Clonidine, Guanfacine and Metabolite of Methyldopa for Treatment of Hypertension

Hypertension is medical condition characterized by abnormal high blood pressure in the arteries, persistently.

According to the American Heart Association (AHA) in November 2017. Patients with blood pressure that higher than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) are considered to have hypertension.

According to statistic, approximately, 85 million people in US have high blood pressure.

Untreated hypertension may induce complications of heart attack, stroke, and other health conditions.

Some researchers suggested that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle factors highlights the importance of environmental factors in induction of hypertension onset and progression(4).

However, according to special issue of the Journal of Human Hypertension primarily, in the concerns of dietary, lifestyle and alternative factors in the risk of hypertension and blood pressure control,  focuses on dietary and lifestyle factors, complementary and alternative approaches  may have a strong impact in prevention and treatment of hypertension(4).

Therefore, increased physical activity and diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, along with a reduction in saturated and total fat may be the best choice in exerted protective effects on blood pressure(4).


Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belongings to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas,. The plant was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries


Chemical constituents
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone,.....(a)


Carica papaya, in compared to pucuk ubi (Manihot esculenta), ulam raja (Cosmos caudatus), pegaga (Centella asiatica) and kacang botol (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), dichloromethane extract of pucuk betik exerts an impressive 59.77% inhibitory activity against key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes and hypertension(1).

The Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia, after examined the alpha-amylase inhibition assay and at the end the study suggested that may consist a nutraceutical potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with type 2 diabetes(1).

Injection of crude ethanol extract of 10 microg/mL prepared from the unripened fruit of Carica papaya on using isolated rabbit arterial (aorta, renal and vertebral) strips induced relaxation of vascular muscle tone(2).

In other words, fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) exhibited anti hypertensive effective through activation of alpha-adrenoceptor(2). 

Alpha adrenoceptor function is protein with function in stimulated vasoconstriction. The receptors found in the skin, the sphincters of gastrointestinal system, kidney (renal artery) and brain(5), play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP)(5).

However, intake of papaya and its extract should be taken with care. if you are taking Warfarin. As  according to University of Naples "Federico II", papaya might interact with Warfarin, the most common cardiovascular drug(3).

Please note, due to Alpha 2 receptors that contribute both to control of sympathetic tone and to local and regional blood flow, conventional and synthetic version medicine such as clonidine, guanfacine and the active metabolite of methyldopa  had copied natural medicine in stimulated Alpha 2 receptors activity in lower BP and in the long-term control of hypertension(5).

Drugs that enhance central alpha 2 activity, such as clonidine, guanfacine and the active metabolite of methyldopa, can significantly lower BP and are effective in the long-term control of hypertension, either alone or in combination with other drugs.

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References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) In vitro inhibitory potential of selected Malaysian plants against key enzymes involved in hyperglycemia and hypertension by Loh SP1, Hadira O.(PubMed)
(2) Blood pressure depression by the fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) in renal and DOCA-induced hypertension in the rat by Eno AE1, Owo OI, Itam EH, Konya RS.(PubMed)
(3) Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction by Izzo AA1, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(4) Dietary and lifestyle factors in hypertension Journal of Human Hypertension by the Journal of Human Hypertension  (2016)
(5) Alpha-adrenergic receptors and blood pressure control by Reid JL(PubMed)