Thursday, 9 August 2018

* How to Prevent Insulin Resistance and Early Onset of Type 2 Diabetes

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Beet juice containing phytochemicals may alter postprandial glucose and insulin responses in prediabetics, some scientists suggested.

Insulin resistance, a condition of not providing enough insulin to counter the rise of blood glucose is considered as the early progression of onset of diabetes.

According to The American Diabetes Association (ADA), people with insulin resistance and prediabetes are associated to the early onset of  type 2 diabetes as a result of unhealthy diet and physical inactivity.

And, 150 million people worldwide and 43 million people in the US are currently suffered by type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome.

In broader terms, insulin resistance is considered as major factor that can lead to type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and prediabetes.

The actual cause of insulin resistance is debatable, some researchers suggested genetic mutation, aging and ethnicity play important roles in development of insulin sensitivity, And people such as obesity, excess body weight, high blood cholesterol and pressure, too much belly fat, a lack of exercise, smoking are susceptible to increase risk of insulin resistance.

More importantly, untreated insulin resistance may also increase risk of abnormal skin condition, known as acanthosis nigricans with dark, velvety patches.

According to Dr. Wallace IR, the lead author in the study of "Dose-response effect of fruit and vegetables on insulin resistance in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial", of 105 participants (mean age 56 years) followed a 4-week washout diet, some class of vegetables and fruits may have particular antidiabetic properties.

Therefore, selection of such class and types of vegetables and fruits  may be good interventions in prevented diabetes in patients with insulin resistance or higher risk of diabetes.

Beet, best known as the beetroot or garden beet is a perennial plant with leafy stems growing to 1–2 m tall, belongings to the amaranth family,

Investigation of the efficacy of beet in ameliorated risk of insulin resistance may be associated different aspects involved numbers of mechanisms.

In a total of sixteen healthy individuals recruited, with consumed test meals in a controlled single-blind cross-over design including beet juice, researchers found that such meals exerts a remarkable in countering the glucose uptake.

Additionally, tested subject also showed a significant lowering of the postprandial insulin response in the early phase and a significantly lower glucose response in the 0–30 min phase, in compared to control fed with control beverage matched for macronutrient content (MCON).

Further analysis indicated that beet juice attenuated rise of glucose in the blood stream may be attributed to constituents of
* Betacyanin betalain pigments which process anti glucose uptake and insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and other metabolic diseases

* Phytochemical polyphenols in stimulated insulin secretion and reduced hepatic glucose output by inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and glucose absorption in the intestine.

α-Amylase is a protein enzyme having a function to convert hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

α-glucosidase is glucosidase in the small intestine with function to break down starch and disaccharides to sugars.

Moreover, in the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, dietary nitrate from beet juice also demonstrated a strong effect in lowering insulin resistance in test subjects. in compared to control through regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling pathway.

Dietary nitrate from beet juice also improved lipid homeostasis, inflammation, and endothelial function.

Dr. Peter C, the lead researcher said, "Betalains, polyphenols and dietary nitrate found in the beetroot juice may each contribute to the observed differences in the postprandial insulin concentration".

Interestingly, in comparison the effect of ingredients of combined 100 ml black tea, beetroot juice or control (water) in 16 obese, insulin-resistant males, researchers revealed that beetroot juice plus black tea treated groups exhibited a decreased postprandial peripheral vascular resistance (VR) in resistance vessels, but lesser than black tea, in compared to other groups.

According to further examination, the efficacy of beet juice and black tea in attenuated insulin resistance was attributed to increased postprandial blood flow in induced glucose disposal and decreased postprandial insulin response by 29 %..

Truly, a standardized breakfasts with or without beet-fibre given, in random order, to non-insulin-dependent diabetics study, found that beet fiber intake individuals expressed a strong effect in rate of glucose decrease after the meal.with blood glucose levels monitored continuously and hormonal responses determined at regular intervals for 3 hr.

Both tested subjects did not exert notable differences with regard to the plasma levels of insulin, C-peptide or glucagon in regulated levels of blood glucose,

C-peptide is a substance involved proinsulin molecule produced by the beta cells in the pancreas.

The collective findings may provide a footage of using beet juice as a functional food in ameliorated risk of insulin resistance and prevented early onset of  type 2 diabetes.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Effects of a beetroot juice with high neobetanin content on the early-phase insulin response in healthy volunteer by Peter C. Wootton-Beard,1 Kirsten Brandt,2 David Fell,3 Sarah Warner,1,2 and Lisa Ryan1,4,*(PMC)
(2) Impact of flavonoid-rich black tea and beetroot juice on postprandial peripheral vascular resistance and glucose homeostasis in obese, insulin-resistant men: a randomized controlled trial by Fuchs D1, Nyakayiru J2, Draijer R1, Mulder TP1, Hopman MT2, Eijsvogels TM2, Thijssen DH3.(PubMed)
(3) Reduced glycemic response to beet-fibre meal in non-insulin-dependent diabetics and its relation to plasma levels of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones by Hagander B, Asp NG, Efendić S, Nilsson-Ehle P, Lungquist I, Scherstén B.(PubMed)
(4) Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice by Song H1, Chu Q1, Xu D1, Xu Y1, Zheng X1.(PubMed)
(5) Beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in type 2 diabetes and its complications by Bahadoran Z1, Ghasemi A2, Mirmiran P3, Azizi F4, Hadaegh F5.(PubMed)
(6) Dose-response effect of fruit and vegetables on insulin resistance in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial by Wallace IR1, McEvoy CT, Hunter SJ, Hamill LL, Ennis CN, Bell PM, Patterson CC, Woodside JV, Young IS, McKinley MC(PubMed)

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