Wednesday, 8 August 2018

* The Fruit That Normalizes Non HDL-c/HDL-c Ratio and Blood Cholesterol Naturally

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Cholesterol is a waxy substance carried around by lipoproteins, that do not mix with water based blood in our body.

Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls and make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help to digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood.

There are 2 types of blood cholesterol, The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is also known as "bad" cholesterol and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered as "good" cholesterol.

According to general belief, high blood cholesterol is considered as risk  of heart diseases due to build-up of cholesterol may narrow arteries that restrict blood flow.

Some researchers suggested that the imbalance of ratio of 2 types of cholesterol caused by over expression of low density cholesterol or reduced levels of high density cholesterol is the main cause of the condition.

Although high blood cholesterol do not induce any symptoms, prolonged period of uncontrolled high blood cholesterol can cause complications of chest pain, the early sign of coronary artery disease, heart attack,.... and stroke.

Eating healthy with rich of vegetables, fruits, increased intake of deep sea fish and reduced intake of saturated and fats accompanied with active physical exercise can reduce risk of high blood cholesterol(6).

However, according to the Medical News Today, some medical conditions and medication may increase subtantial risk of abnormal cholesterol levels, such as diabetes, liver or kidney disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, underactive thyroid gland and drugs that treat increase LDL cholesterol and decrease HDL cholesterol (progestins, anabolic steroids, and corticosteroids)(5).

Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belongings to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas. and the plant was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries

Chemical constituents
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone, etc.(a)

In the study to investigate the ficus carica leaf extract, on hyperlipidemia in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese male rats, researchers at the University of Florida showed that the extract improves the lipid profile and decreases adipogenic risk factors, most likely mediated through an increase in HDL-C levels(1)

In diabetic rats induced by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ), application of aqueous extract of Carica papaya at dose of 0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) also exerted hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect;, through improved the lipid profile and affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas(2).

In other words, the injection decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and balance the ratio of amino-transferases blood levels in tested rats.

Liver cell injury and damage are associated with a greater increase in ALT than AST; According to diagnosis used for measurement of liver health , an AST/ALT ratio of 2.0 or higher or ALT level exceeding 300 U/L may be indicative of alcoholic liver disease(7).

Abnormal AST/ALT ratio also is served as an indication of abnormal Non-HDL-c/HDL-c ratio which has a strong implication in development of  coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance(7).

According to medical guidelines, normal goal of non-HDL cholesterol level should be 30 mg/dL higher than LDL cholesterol level.

For example, if your non-HDL cholesterol level= LDL cholesterol.+ 30 mg/dL = 130 mg/dL and your  HDL is 40 mg/dL = Non-HDL-c/HDL-c ratio of 3.25, the ideal range of the ratio.

Noticeably, Dr.Juárez-Rojop IE, the lead author at the end of experiment of testing the efficacy of papaya aqueous extract  said, "Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids".

Furhter more, ether- and water-soluble fractions of Carica papaya ethanol extract, on the other hand, in dose-dependent manner inhibited the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level(3).

However, according to the Institute for Medical Research, C. papaya leaf extract at a dose over fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine may induce toxicity(4).

Therefore, people who want to use papaya extract for treatment of high blood cholesterol should be taken with extreme care.

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Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Ficus carica leaf extract modulates the lipid profile of rats fed with a high-fat diet through an increase of HDL-C by Joerin L1, Kauschka M, Bonnländer B, Pischel I, Benedek B, Butterweck V.(PubMed)
(2) Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Juárez-Rojop IE1, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, Miranda-Osorio PH, Castell-Rodríguez AE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, Rodríguez-Hernández A, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Ramón-Frías T, Bermúdez-Ocaña DY.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of ether- and water-soluble fractions of Carica papaya ethanol extract in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rats by Iyer D1, Sharma BK, Patil UK.(PubMed)
(4) Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats by Afzan A1, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, Jantan I, Muhammad H, Ismail Z.(PubMed)
(5) Cholesterol by Medical News Today
(6) Lowering LDL-cholesterol through diet: potential role in the statin era by Bruckert E1, Rosenbaum D(PubMed)
(7) Higher non-HDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio linked with increased nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by Dianhui Wang,1 Ling Wang,2 Zhanqing Wang,3 Shihong Chen,1 Yihong Ni,1 and Dongqing Jiang(PMC)