Friday, 6 January 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia - Phytochemical Gallic acid

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

                 Phytochemicals Against Dementia

Phytochemicals, the non nutritional parts are natural chemical constituents in plants to protect against diseases and to form color as well as other organoleptic properties. Study of Phytochemicals have emerged as a potential source to find a better treatment or cure some diseases with little or side effects or to create a synthetic equivalence for commercial profits.

Gallic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Phenolic acids, found abundantly in tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy, etc.
1. Cytotoxic and antioxidative activities(367)
Gallic acid showed to exert its antioxidant in inhibition of free radical effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), a stable free-radical molecules(354), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (SO) radicals(353)(355), probably through its chelation of ferrous ions(355). In bacteria, the phytochemical extract containing gallic acid also exhibited a strong anti microbial effect(357)(358) from species of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea(356); In cancers, gallic acid induced tumor cytotoxic effects(357), through antiproliferative induced apoptosis(359), cell cycle arrest(362) and suppression of cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis(360), such as mitochondrial dysfunction(361). Neurologically. gallic acid reduced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction causes of the pathology of secondary neuronal damage in induction of dementia(363); its anti-aggregating effect also inhibited α-synuclein (α-syn) causes of many neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies(364).

2. Anti inflammatory activity(367)
Gallic acid showed to inhibit inflammation(366) through its scavenging of superoxide anions, inhibition of myeloperoxidase release and activity via mediation of inflammatory process(365).

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(353) Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 activity by 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose in murine macrophage cells. by Lee SJ1, Lee IS, Mar W.(353)
(354) 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activity of Rhizophora mangle (L.) bar by Janet Calero Sánchez, Roberto Faure García, and Ma. Teresa Mitjavila Cors1(PubMed)
(355) In vitro antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging evaluation of active metabolite constituents of Newbouldia laevis ethanolic leaf extract by Josiah Bitrus Habu and Bartholomew Okechukwu Ibeh(PMC)
(356) The antimicrobial, mechanical, physical and structural properties of chitosan-gallic acid films Xiuxiu Sun Wayne State University Zhe Wang School of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, China Hoda Kadouh Wayne State University Kequan Zhou Wayne State University, Common)
(357) Antibacterial activity and mode of action of ferulic and gallic acids against pathogenic bacteria by Celeste Simões
(358) Berry phenolics: antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens by Nohynek LJ1, Alakomi HL, Kähkönen MP, Heinonen M, Helander IM, Oksman-Caldentey KM, Puupponen-Pimiä RH.(PubMed)
(359) Gallic Acid Induces the Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo via the Regulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways by Cheng-zhen Liang,1 Xin Zhang,1 Hao Li,1 Yi-qing Tao,1 Li-jiang Tao,1 Zi-ru Yang,1 Xiao-peng Zhou,1 Zhong-li Shi,2 andHui-min Tao(PMC)
(360) Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells by BING ZHAO and MENGCAI HU(PMC)
(361) Gallic acid suppresses cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human glioma cell by Yong Lu,1,2 Feng Jiang,2 Hao Jiang,2 Kalina Wu,1 Xuguang Zheng,2 Yizhong Cai,3 Mark Katakowski,2 Michael Chopp,2,4 and Shing-Shun Tony To1(PMC)
(362) Antitumor effect of beta-elemene in non-small-cell lung cancer cells is mediated via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. by Wang G1, Li X, Huang F, Zhao J, Ding H, Cunningham C, Coad JE, Flynn DC, Reed E, Li QQ.(PubMed)
(363) Puerarin attenuates cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia by Jing Zhang,1,2 Wenshi Guo,3 Buxian Tian,3 Menghan Sun,1 Hui Li,2 Lina Zhou,2 Xueping Liu4(PMC)
(364) The many faces of α-synuclein: from structure and toxicity to therapeutic target by Hilal A. Lashuel,1 Cassia R. Overk,2 Abid Oueslati,1 and Eliezer Masliah2,3(PMC)

(365) The superoxide anion donor, potassium superoxide, induces pain and inflammation in mice through production of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 by N.A. Maioli,1 A.C. Zarpelon,1 S.S. Mizokami,1 C. Calixto-Campos,1 C.F.S. Guazelli,1 M.S.N. Hohmann,1 F.A. Pinho-Ribeiro,1 T.T. Carvalho,1 M.F. Manchope,1 C.R. Ferraz,1 R. Casagrande,2 and W.A. Verri, Jr1(PMC)
(366) Anti-inflammatory activity of gallic acid by Kroes BH1, van den Berg AJ, Quarles van Ufford HC, van Dijk H, Labadie RP.(PubMed)
(367) Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from the Mediterranean brown seaweed Cystoseira sedoides by Mhadhebi L1, Laroche-Clary A, Robert J, Bouraoui A.(PubMed)

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