Thursday, 5 January 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia - Phytochemical Curcumin

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

                 Phytochemicals Against Dementia- Curcumin

Phytochemicals, the non nutritional parts are natural chemical constituents in plants to protect against diseases and to form color as well as other organoleptic properties. Study of Phytochemicals have emerged as a potential source to find a better treatment or cure some diseases with little or side effects or to create a synthetic equivalence for commercial profits.

Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, is a rhizomatousherbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native totropical South Asia, used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders(336). Curcumin, a phytochemical found abundant in the plant, in acidic solutions (pH <7.4) turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions turns bright red.
1. Alzheimer's disease and Anti-inflammatory agent
a. Alzheimer's disease
Increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory consumption such as curcumin may reduce risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) caused by amyloid beta (Abeta) accumulation(338) through reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology(339). The phytochemical is also found to disaggregate Abeta in preventing fibril and oligomer formation(338). According to YamagataUniversity, its synthesized curcumin analogues used pharmateutically in treatment of amyloid β aggregation also experience notable result(337). In vitro and animal models, curcumin was effective, in lowering oxidative damage, cognitive deficits, synaptic marker loss, and amyloid depositio in prevented onset of Alzheimer's disease(340).

b. Anti-inflammatory agent
Curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent(341), in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and neurodegenerative diseases,, decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cells signalling in response to inflammation(342)(343), in patients of ear infection and Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer'sdisease(344)(345), respectively.

2. Antioxidants
Curcumin also consisting anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activitie(346), in arthritis, strongly inhibited collagenase and stromely in expression at micromolar concentrations(346); in diabetes, scavenged free radicals and reduced LDL oxidation and cellular oxidative stress(347); in cancers, reduced accumulation of ROS causes of abnormal cells(348), through apoptosis(349); in neurodegenerative diseases, exerted autophagy-lysosomal activities, through removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and cells with specific function(350) and regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)(351)(352).
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(336) Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger specie by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, , S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto, M.Y. Yong(Science direct)
(337) Effects of repeated androgen treatments on metabolism and nuclear binding of androgen in the infant murine submandibular gland by Katsukawa H1, Ninomiya Y, Funakoshi M.(PubMed)
(338) Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo by Yang F1, Lim GP, Begum AN, Ubeda OJ, Simmons MR, Ambegaokar SS, Chen PP, Kayed R, Glabe CG, Frautschy SA, Cole GM.(PubMed)
(339) Phenolic anti-inflammatory antioxidant reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology by Frautschy SA1, Hu W, Kim P, Miller SA, Chu T, Harris-White ME, Cole GM.(PubMed)
(340) Structure activity relationship study of curcumin analogues toward the amyloid-beta aggregation inhibitor by Endo H1, Nikaido Y1, Nakadate M1, Ise S1, Konno H2.(PubMed)
(341) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation by Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG.(PubMed)
(342) Curcumin inhibits imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation by inhibiting IL-1beta and IL-6 production in mice by Sun J1, Zhao Y, Hu J.(PubMed)
(343) Relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin in neurodegenerative diseases and depression by Tizabi Y1, Hurley LL2, Qualls Z3, Akinfiresoye L4.(PubMed)
(344) Neuroprotective and neurorescue effects of a novel polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) in the neuronal cell culture and animal model: implications for Alzheimer's disease by Ray B1, Bisht S, Maitra A, Maitra A, Lahiri DK.(PubMed)
(345) Neuronal uptake and neuroprotective effect of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles on the human SK-N-SH cell line by Doggui S1, Sahni JK, Arseneault M, Dao L, Ramassamy C.(PubMed)
(346) The antioxidants curcumin and quercetin inhibit inflammatory processes associated with arthritis by Jackson JK1, Higo T, Hunter WL, Burt HM.(PubMed)
(347) In vitro antidiabetic and inhibitory potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L) rhizome against cellular and LDL oxidation and angiotensin converting enzyme by Lekshmi PC1, Arimboor R1, Nisha VM1, Menon AN1, Raghu KG1.(PubMed)
(348) Water-soluble antioxidants improve the antioxidant and anticancer activity of low concentrations of curcumin in human leukemia cells by Chen J1, Wanming D, Zhang D, Liu Q, Kang, J.(PubMed)
(349) ROS-dependent prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) up-regulation and ceramide generation are the prime signaling events associated with curcumin-induced autophagic cell death in human malignant glioma by Thayyullathil F1, Rahman A1, Pallichankandy S1, Patel M1, Galadari S2.(PubMed)
(350) Autophagy as an essential cellular antioxidant pathway in neurodegenerative disease. by Giordano S1, Darley-Usmar V1, Zhang J2.(PubMed)
(351) Dietary curcumin ameliorates aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction through the AMPK/uncoupling protein 2 pathway by Pu Y1, Zhang H, Wang P, Zhao Y, Li Q, Wei X, Cui Y, Sun J, Shang Q, Liu D, Zhu Z.(PubMed)
(352) Curcumin nanoparticles attenuate neurochemical and neurobehavioral deficits in experimental model of Huntington's disease by Sandhir R1, Yadav A, Mehrotra A, Sunkaria A, Singh A, Sharma S.(PubMed)

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