Tuesday, 17 January 2017

The Conventional Treatment of Dementia associated for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

     Treatment of Dementia associated for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, progressive condition induced symptoms of olfactory deficit, sleep problems such as rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, constipation and the more recently described male erectile dysfunction(456), due to the interruption of frontal-subcortical loops facilitated cognition and parallel the motor loop(457).
Contrary to common perception, many non-motor symptoms (NMS) also link to early onset of PD(459) and some may even predate the diagnosis of PD based on motor signs(458).

According to the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Review of Treatments for Parkinson's Disease (PD) was first published in 2002 and updated in 2005 to cover clinical trial data up to January 2004 with the treatments on motor symptoms of PD(489), including

a. Piribedil(490)(491), pramipexole(491), pramipexole extended release(492)(493), ropinirole(491), rotigotine(494), cabergoline(491), and pergolide(491) were all efficacious as symptomatic monotherapy
b. Ropinirole prolonged release(495) was likely efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct therapy
c. Prevention/delay of motor fluctuations, pramipexole(496) and cabergoline(497) were efficacious
d. Prevention/delay of dyskinesia, pramipexole(498), ropinirole(499), ropinirole prolonged release(500), and cabergoline(501) were all efficacious, whereas pergolide(502) was likely efficacious.
e. Duodenal infusion of levodopa(502)(503) was likely efficacious in the treatment of motor complications, but the practice implication is investigational.
f. Rasagiline conclusions were revised to efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct(504), and as treatment for motor fluctuations(505).
g. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation(506), bilateral globus pallidus stimulation(507), and unilateral pallidotomy(508) were updated to efficacious for motor complications.
h. Physical therapy(509)was revised to likely efficacious as symptomatic adjunct therapy.

((457) Frontal-subcortical circuitry and behavior by Bonelli RM1, Cummings JL.(PubMed)
(458) Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and management by Salawu FK1, Danburam A, Olokoba AB.(PubMed)
(459) Early Parkinson's disease and non-motor issues by Chaudhuri KR1, Naidu Y.(PubMed)
(488) Practice Parameter: Treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease
Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology by T. A.Zesiewicz, MD, FAAN, K. L. Sullivan, MSPH, I. Arnulf, MD, K. R. Chaudhuri, MD, J. C.Morgan, MD, PhD, G. S. Gronseth, MD, FAAN, J. Miyasaki, MD, MEd, FAAN, D. J. Iverson, MD, FAAN and W. J. Weiner, MD(Neurology)
(489) The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease by Fox SH1, Katzenschlager R, Lim SY, Ravina B, Seppi K, Coelho M, Poewe W, Rascol O, Goetz CG, Sampaio C.(PubMed)
(490) Transdermal administration of piribedil reverses MPTP-induced motor deficits in the common marmoset by Smith LA1, Jackson MG, Bonhomme C, Chezaubernard C, Pearce RK, Jenner P.(PubMed)
(491) Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease by Deleu D1, Northway MG, Hanssens Y.(PubMed)
(492) Role and clinical utility of pramipexole extended release in the treatment of early Parkinson's disease by Hametner EM1, Seppi K, Poewe W.(PubMed)
(493) Pramipexole extended-release: a review of its use in patients with Parkinson's disease by Frampton JE1.(PubMed)
(494) Role of dopamine receptor agonists in the treatment of early Parkinson's disease. by Bonuccelli U1, Del Dotto P, Rascol O.(PubMed).
(495) Long-term, open-label, safety study of once-daily ropinirole extended/prolonged release in early and advanced Parkinson's disease by Makumi CW1, Asgharian A, Ellis J, Shaikh S, Jimenez T, VanMeter S.(PubMed)
(496) Pramipexole and its extended release formulation for Parkinson's disease by Fishman PS1.(PubMed)
(497) [Dopamine agonists in the treatment of motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease].[Article in Polish] by Sławek J1.(PubMed)
(498) Long-term safety and sustained efficacy of extended-release pramipexole in early and advanced Parkinson's disease by Hauser RA, Schapira AH, Barone P, Mizuno Y, Rascol O, Busse M, Debieuvre C, Fraessdorf M, Poewe W; Pramipexole ER Studies Group.(PubMed)
(499) A five-year study of the incidence of dyskinesia in patients with early Parkinson's disease who were treated with ropinirole or levodopa by Rascol O1, Brooks DJ, Korczyn AD, De Deyn PP, Clarke CE, Lang AE.(PubMed)
(500) Economic evaluation of ropinirole prolonged release for treatment of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands by van Boven JF1, Novak A, Driessen MT, Boersma C, Boomsma MM, Postma MJ.(PubMed)
(501) Risk of heart failure following treatment with dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease patients by Perez-Lloret S1, Rey MV, Crispo J, Krewski D, Lapeyre-Mestre M, Montastruc JL, Rascol O.(PubMed)
(502) Interaction of pergolide with central dopaminergic receptors. by Goldstein M, Lieberman A, Lew JY, Asano T, Rosenfeld MR, Makman MH.(PubMed)
(503) Medical management of levodopa-associated motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease by Jankovic J1, Stacy M.(PubMed)
(504) [Rasagiline in monotherapy in patients with early stages of Parkinson's disease and in combined and adjunct therapy to levodopa with moderate and advanced stages].[Article in Spanish] by Pagonabarraga J1, Rodríguez-Oroz MC.(PubMed)
(505) Rasagiline: a review of its use in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. by McCormack PL1.(PubMed)
(506) Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: evidence for effectiveness and limitations from 12 years' experience. by Movement Disorder Group, Chan AY1, Yeung JH2, Mok VC1, Ip VH1, Wong A1, Kuo SH3, Chan DT4, Zhu XL4, Wong E4, Lau CK4, Wong RK5, Tang V6, Lau C1,Poon WS4.(PubMed)
(507) Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus internus by Krause M1, Fogel W, Heck A, Hacke W, Bonsanto M, Trenkwalder C, Tronnier V.(PubMed)
(508) Bilateral pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson's disease induced corticobulbar syndrome and psychic akinesia avoidable by globus pallidus lesion combined with contralateral stimulation by Merello M1, Starkstein S, Nouzeilles MI, Kuzis G, Leiguarda R.(PubMed)
(509) Maintenance ECT in the treatment of PD. Therapy improves psychotic symptoms, physical function by Shulman RB1.(PubMed)

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