Tuesday, 27 January 2015

(Preview)Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Radix polygalae(Yuan Zhi)

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)According to the Unilever R&D Shanghai, and Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Dr. and the team of researchers, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in 3000 years' literary history, the top 5 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos(720), Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae have been used extensively for treatment of dementia.

C.1.2. Radix polygalae(Yuan Zhi)
Yuan Zhi, sweet and slightly cool herb is also known as Thinleaf Milkwort Root, used in TCM as antibiotic property, anti-viral property(732), anti cancer(734) and anti depression(733) agent in treating hepatitis B, tumors in the digestive system, respiratory system and in the uterus, etc., as it calms the heart, transforms phlegm,  resolves furuncle and oedema, expel toxin, etc. by enhancing the functions of spleen, lung and liver channels.

1. Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK)
2. Polysaccharopeptides (PSP)

3. Tenuifolin
4. Onjisaponin B

5. Etc.

Yuan Zhi used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(719) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to their effectiveness of phytochemicals in ameliorated amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits(735). In aging related dementia, based on the history of use, and pharmacological investigation, Yuan Zhi showed a strong evidence in memory improving, including cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities(736). Palmul-chongmyeong-tang, a traditional Chinese medicine formula containing Yuan zhi, exhibited improvement of learning and memory deficits, through reduction of loss of cholinergic immunoreactivity induced by cerebral ischemia(737).

1. In Alzheimer's disease (AD)
In free radical involved neuro-degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), pretreament with Paeng-Jo-Yeon-Nyeon-Baek-Ja-In-Hwan (PJBH) prescription significantly exhibited cytoprotective effects, through elevating cell survival, antioxidant enzyme activities and resulted decreased production  of malondialdehyde (MDA)  which associated to Alzheimer's disease (AD)(738). Smart Soup (SS), composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), in  oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD in animal model, effectively reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss(739).

2. In Parkinson's disease
Mutant Huntingtin gene caused by a poly-glutamine expansion in huntingtin( 740)and A53T α-synuclein, a protein found abundantly in the human brain, at the tips of nerve cells (neurons)(741) have shown to be associated with the development of Huntington disease and Parkinson disease. Yuan Zhi phytochemical, onjisaponin B  and ethanol extracts showed to induce autophagy(743) through signalling pathway in participation of regulation of vascular function(742) in protection  of cells against pro-neuro apoptosis  via the mitochondrial pathway(744). According to colege of Pharmacy and Kyung Hee East-West Pharmaceutical Research Institute, in mouse models of Parkinson's disease, Yuan Zhi  also exhibited it protective effects on dopaminergic neurons induced by toxicity(745).

3. In Huntington diseases
 Mutant Hungtintin caused of  degradation of long-lived cytoplasmic proteins, protein complexes (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane)(747), or damaged organelles(tiny structures that perform very specific functions within cells)(748) attentuated autophagy in asociateion of  the development of Huntington diseases(746), onjisaponin B, found in Yuan Zhi,  effectively induce  autophagy through its acceleration of both the removal of mutant huntingtin and and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells(749), which contain mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells(750).

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Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine  by Kyle J. Norton 

(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(732) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22205352
(733) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20541923
(734) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Yuan+zhi+tumors
(735) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25386946
(736) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808655
(737) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17268076
(738) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808655
(739) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25386946
(740) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166352/
(741) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-synuclein
(742) http://www.nature.com/hr/journal/v33/n5/full/hr201011a.html
(743) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24248062
(744) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17182613
(745) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21195155
(746) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18637946
(747) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoplasm
(748) http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-organelles.htm
(750) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC12_cell_line

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