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Saturday, 24 January 2015

(Preview)Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Herbal Treatments: Other Potential Herbs

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


         Diseases of Central Nervous system

                           Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
B. In herbal medicine perspective
6. Other potential herbs
Herbs used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(682)(683) in traditional medicine, may be due to their effectiveness of phytochemicals in attenuation of oxidative stress and neuro inflammation via neuroglial activation(683).
According to University of Wollongong, herbs and spices, containing high amount of phytochemicals in traditional history of use, with strong roles in cultural heritage, may have a distinguished effect in cognitive decline associated with ageing and the acute effects of psychological and cognitive function(684), probably through active ingredients of spices in modulation of neural response in the peripheral nervous system, via interaction with TRP channel/receptors(685).

Phytochemicals have been studied intensively including
1. Cannabinoids (e.g. cannabidiol) from Cannabis sativa, may be emerging as potential therapeutic agents for treatment of symptoms of dementia(686)(687). In Alzheimer's disease. the phytochemicals have found effectively against multifactorial illnesses as Alzheimer's disease, through inhibition of  BuChE(689) and AChE(690) enzymes by a non-competitive or mixed mechanism(688).

2. Resveratrol (occurs in various plants) showed to improved cognition and reduces oxidative stress, by promoting learning and memory ability in vascular dementia(692) and decreased malonyldialdehyde levels(691). In Alzheimer's Disease, the phytochemical exerted its neuroprotective effect(694)(695), in decreased Aβ accumulation, tau protein phosphorylation, oxidative stress(693), and may be used for aging population in the prevention of various age-related neurological disorders(694).

3. Curcumin (from turmeric [Curcuma longa]), in pharmacological activities, besides promoted cognition and mood in a healthy older population(695), it also exhibited beneficial role in several neurodegenerative disorders(696) against administered streptozotocin (STZ)induced dementia model(696)(698), probably through its antioxidant effect(697). In Alzheimer's Disease, The herb also showed in reversed cognitive deficits, through its function in decreased GSK-3β levels(Glycogen synthase kinase 3, a protein) related to onset of Alzheimer's Disease(699)), and increased promoter activity of the TCF/LEF in binding DNA(600) and cyclin-D1(a protein) in regulating cell cycle progression(701).

4. Crocetin, a phytochemical found in Saffron (Crocus sativus), protected cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia, by improving spatial learning memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in animal study(703) through its antioxidant effects(704) in decreased oxidative stress(704). According to The University of Tokyo, the effectiveness of the herbal phytochemicals  crocetin and crocin, also enhanced learning behaviour and promoted memory recall(705). In severe Alzheimer's Disease and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease patients, saffron extract showed to be comparable with memantine in reducing cognitive decline in 1 year(706) and  reduce cognitive decline in 22 weeks administration(707), respectively.

Herbs
5. Ginseng (Panax species), showed to be beneficiary on age-related cognitive impairments
 through the activities of  its members of ginsenosides(708) and Non-ginsenoside nicotinic agents(709).

6. Sage (Salvia species), may also be used as a potential novel natural treatments for the relief of some diseases including dementia, according to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(710).

 But according to Jodrell Laboratory, the use of such remedies in complex mixtures of different plants in traditional folk medicine may induce complication in interpretation of pharmacological activity and challenges for quality control(702).


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Sources
(682) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055633
(683) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20657497
(684) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17022438
(685) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25359561
(686) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24828945
(687) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24624670
(688) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378710
(688) http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/424604_5
(689) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378710
(690) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25206513
(691) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25206513
(692) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660032
(693) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525597
(694) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19090994
(695) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25315300
(694) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25281824
(695) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25277322
(696) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20026275
(697) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19705549
(698) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21195590
(699) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GSK-3
(700) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TCF/LEF_family
(701) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin_D1
(702) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639405
(703) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23988025
(704) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21774008
(705) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10815004
(706) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25163440
(707) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19838862
(708) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189953
(709) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639405
(710) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24860730