Saturday, 3 January 2015

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - The Preventive Phytochemicals Tangeritin and Curcumin

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V.  Preventions
C. Phytochemicals Against Dementia
C.4.  Tangeritin
Tangeritin, one of the flavones, is found in tangerine and many citrus peels.
1. Neuroprotective effects
Natural antioxidant tangeretin, may be used as neuroprotective agent, for its significant effects on protection of striato-nigral integrity and functionality in patients with Parkinson's disease(327), probably through its anti-neuroinflammatory activity(328) via mitochondrial depolarization(329) in attenuated reactive oxygen species generation.

2. Antioxidants

Mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel, containing tangeretin showed to exhibit its antioxidant(331) in enhancing the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect(330), as well as ameliorating oxidative stress causes of DNA damage(332), mammary carcinoma(333)(334) and diabetes(335).

C.5. Curcumin

Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders(336). Curcumin, a phytochemical found abundant in the plant, in acidic solutions (pH <7.4) turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions turns bright red.
1. Alzheimer's disease and Anti-inflammatory agent
a. Alzheimer's disease
Increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory consumption such as curcumin may reduce risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) caused by amyloid beta (Abeta) accumulation(338) through reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology(339). The phytochemical is also found to disaggregate Abeta in preventing fibril and oligomer formation(338). According to Yamagata University, its synthesized curcumin analogues used pharmateutically in treatment of amyloid β aggregation also experience notable result(337). In vitro and animal models, curcumin was effective, in lowering oxidative damage, cognitive deficits, synaptic marker loss, and amyloid depositio in prevented onset of Alzheimer's disease(340).

b. Anti-inflammatory agent

  Curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent(341), in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and neurodegenerative diseases,, decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cells signalling in response to inflammation(342)(343), in patients of ear infection and Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease(344)(345), respectively.

2. Antioxidants

Curcumin also consisting anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activitie(346), in arthritis, strongly inhibited collagenase and stromely in expression at micromolar concentrations(346); in diabetes, scavenged free radicals and reduced LDL oxidation and cellular oxidative stress(347); in cancers, reduced accumulation of ROS causes of abnormal cells(348), through apoptosis(349); in neurodegenerative diseases, exerted autophagy-lysosomal activities, through removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and cells with specific function(350) and regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)(351)(352).
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