Sunday, 4 January 2015

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - The Preventive Phytochemicals Gallic acid and Cinnamic acid

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V.  Preventions
C. Phytochemicals Against Dementia
G.6.  Gallic acid
Gallic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Phenolic acids, found abundantly in tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy, etc.
1. Cytotoxic and antioxidative activities(367)
Gallic acid showed to exert its antioxidant in inhibition of free radical effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), a stable free-radical molecules(354), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (SO) radicals(353)(355), probably through its chelation of ferrous ions(355). In bacterias, the phytochemical extract containing gallic acid also exhibited a strong anti microbial effect(357)(358) from species of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea(356); In cancers, gallic acid induced tumor cytotoxic effects(357), through antiproliferative induced apoptosis(359), cell cycle arrest(362) and suppression of cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis(360), such as mitochondrial dysfunction(361). Neurologically. gallic acid reduced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction causes of the pathology of secondary neuronal damage in induction of dementia(363); its anti-aggregating effect also inhibited α-synuclein (α-syn) causes of in many neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies(364).

2.  Anti inflammatory activity(367)
Gallic acid showed to inhibit inflammation(366) through its scavenging of superoxide anions, inhibition of myeloperoxidase release and activity via mediation of inflammatory process(365).

C.7. Cinnamic acid

Cinnamic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Hydroxycinnamic acids, found abundantly in cinnamon, aloe. etc.
1. Antioxidant effects
Mitochondrial oxidative damage is associated with a number of clinical disorders. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (TPP-OH), including cinnamic acid exhibited its antioxidant activity in protection of cells against H(2)O(2) and linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress(371)(368). The phytochemical also showed a promising free radical scavenging(369) and anti-inflammatory(375), antidiabetic(374), antimicrobial(371), anticancer(377)(378), lipid-lowering(379)(380), and cardiovascular-disease-lowering activity(369)(370)(380). Neurologically, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders(372)(375)(376), such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases(373)(370)

2,  Anti-platelet aggregation
 Novel ligustrazinyloxy-cinnamic acid derivatives showed to inhibit  platelet aggregation in vitro(380), and its p-amidinophenyl esters also exerted antithrombotic effects as irreversible inhibitors of the vitamin-K dependent enzymes(382) which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(381).

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