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Saturday, 10 January 2015

(Preview) Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Glaucoma: The Types

Glaucoma is a medical condition of an eye disease caused by induced retinal ganglion cell types
alterations before detectable dendritic loss. If untreated, the disease can lead to permanently vision impair and blindness.

I. Types of glaucoma(a)
There are several types of glaucoma. The two main types are (Chronically)open-angle(2)(3) and (Acutely)angle-closure(4)(5) both caused by either increase of intraocular pressure (IOP)(1), or pressure inside the eye(1).

A. Open-Angle Glaucoma affecting about 2.2 million Americans(6) and over 90% in all glaucoma cases(7), is the most common form of glaucoma, according to the 2000 statistic, with rates increased with ages(7).
Due to gradually progressive visual field loss, and optic nerve changes of the disease(9), patients may not experience any symptoms in the early stage of the diseases(10) depending to IOP high-tension and larger IOP fluctuations in normal-tension of OAG patients(8). Lacerating injury of cornea with iris prolapse in the eye if left untreated, may also induce open angle glaucoma(11).

A.1. Open-Angle Glaucoma caused by the slow progression of clogging of the drainage canals(13)  induced primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG), due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP)(12).

A.2. Open-Angle Glaucoma is a result of the area  between the iris and cornea (The angle) widen(11).
The untreated rate of progression of patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) corresponded to advancing from normal visual function to blindness in approximately 70 years(14).

B. Angle-Closure Glaucoma
Angle-closure glaucoma is a less common form of acute glaucoma. Patients with angle-closure glaucoma may be experience the symptoms of sudden ocular pain, seeing halos around lights, red eye, very high intraocular pressure, nausea and vomiting, suddenly decreased vision, and a fixed, mid-dilated pupil(15), etc.
1. Caused by Sudden rise in intraocular pressure
Psychotropic agents(16)(17)(18) have been found to be frequently associated with ocular adverse effects(21) in inducing  angle-closure glaucoma, including pseudoexfoliation glaucoma caused by intraocular pressure (IOP) increased within hours after carbamazepine and gabapentin intake(19).

2. Caused by a closed or narrow angle between the iris and cornea(20)
Closed or narrow angle between the iris and cornea may be associated to early stage of acute angle-closure glaucoma(22).

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References
(a) tp://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/types-of-glaucoma.php
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24174678
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25571535
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12049574
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17301614
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24712825
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=statistic+of+Open-Angle+Glaucoma+in+Us
(7) http://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/types-of-glaucoma.php
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722866
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12719086
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25555211
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937520
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664597
(13) http://www.glaucoma.org/GRF_Understanding_Glaucoma_EN.pdf
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854514 
(15) http://www.americanherbalistsguild.com/sites/default/files/Proceedings/cabrera_chancal_-_acute_narrow_angle_glaucoma.pdf 
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627580
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17638821
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16202173
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429633
(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24109168
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23991389
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8540544