Friday, 2 January 2015

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - The Preventive Phytochemicals Gingerole and Naringenin

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V.  Preventions
C. Phytochemicals Against Dementia
C.2. Gingerole
Gingerole, is also known as gingerol, a phytochemical of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found in fresh ginger. and in variety of other plants. The herb has been used for treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, motion sickness, rheumatoid arthritis, relieve migraine, etc. in folk medicine.
1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
 Chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Rosc.(Zingiberaceae) showed to attenuate oxidative stress, through its scavenging, and inhibiting superoxide and hydroxyl radicals of ROS species(310), via nephroprotective effect on mediation of oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and renal dysfunction(311).

2. Dementia

 Ginger(70% aqueous/methanolic extract of dried ginger (Zo.Cr)) beside induced spasmolytic activity in stomach fundus in treating dementia in South Asia, it also inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in improvement of cognitive performance patients with dementia(4) and Vascular dementia (VaD)(315), probably through cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in reduced production of amyloid-β(316).

C.3.  Naringenin
Naringenin, a flavanone, belonging to the red, blue, purple pigments of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found predominantly in citrus fruits is considered as one of powerful antioxidant with many health benefits.
1. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging 
 Naringin showed to reduce DNA damage through its antioxidant capacities in scavenging free radicals hydroxyl and superoxide(317). Cognitively, naringenin ameliorates Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration(318) by improving learning and memory ability of patient with early onset of the diseases(319). Pharmacologically, the phytochemical was found to be a potential anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antiatherogenic agent(320).

2. Anti-inflammatory effects(320)
Neuroinflammation is considered as a constant event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with no evidences for its direct involvement in development(322). In diabetic mice model, naringenin exhibited its anti inflammatory activity in  lowering blood glucose and urea nitrogen, increasing insulin level and creatinine clearance(321), probably through inhibition of iNOS protein and anti inflammatory pathways(323).

3. Immunity

Adaptive and innate immune deficit were shown to associate with cognitive dysfunction in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)(325). Naringenin, stimulated the production T cells in regulating the immune system, in suppression of  allergies and autoimmune diseases(324) which are considered as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease variants(326).

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