Thursday, 1 November 2018

Strawberry, the Functional Food Which Processes anti Neurological Diseases Potential, Scientists Say

By Kyle J. Norton

Strawberries may process strong neuroprotective effects by protecting the brain cell integrity and viability against the onset of neurological diseases, some scientists suggested.

A neuroprotective effect is an event that protects the central nervous system (CNS) by relatively preserving of neuronal structure and/or function.

Neurological diseases are the medical conditions of brain disorder. Anything that involves the structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves, including brain damage are considered as neuro diseases.

Most common neurodegenerative diseases in the elderly are dementia. Depending on the brain regions that are damaged or dysfunction, dementia can be Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's disease.

Genetic mutation inherited from parents such as the NOTCH3 gene is the most common autosomal dominant inherited cause of stroke and vascular dementia. 

Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, overuse of alcohol, lack of physical activity and inadequate relief of chronic stress and poor diet with high in saturated and trans fat, red meat, processed foods and less in fruits and vegetable and whole grain are some of the key contributors in the development and progression of chronic diseases, including neurological diseases.

Dr. Null G, the lead author in the study "Nutrition and Lifestyle Intervention on Mood and Neurological Disorders" said, "a vegan diet, fruit and vegetable juices, nutritional supplements, regular exercise, and de-stressing techniques, would affect 27 subjects with anxiety, depression, poor memory, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, history of stroke, or multiple sclerosis. Several subjects had overlapping conditions" and " an intervention of diet, juicing, supplements, exercise, and lifestyle may provide considerable benefits for all conditions addressed.".

These results suggested that if you are following a healthy diet and lifestyle, your risk of neurological diseases is substantially lower compared to people who follow the Werten diet with physical inactivity.

Strawberries are a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongs to the family Roseaceae.

The fruits have been grown all over the world in a suitable climate for commercial profits and health benefits.

The major chemical compounds include anthocyanin and ellagitannins and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin.

In the assessment of the neuroprotective effects of a unique class of nutraceutical antioxidants, anthocyanins, against the MOS-induced death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), researchers at the University of Denver conducted a study to evaluate the effect of callistephin and kuromanin, the anthocyanins derived from strawberries.

The tested anthocyanins derivatives demonstrated significant protection from MOS-induced apoptosis, equivalent to those of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate.

Callistephin and kuromanin also exerted a neuroprotective activity by preventing inhibition of Bcl-2, a cellular proliferative protein that causes a significant reduction of mitochondrial GSH, cell antioxidant enzyme. 

Furthermore, the anthocyanins derivative inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and prevented cardiolipin oxidation in the induction of neurological damage.

Moreover, the anthocyanin derivative significantly enhanced GSH, an antioxidant enzyme produced by the host body observed by the peroxidase activity in a cell-free assay.

Additionally, in the reassessment the mechanisms involved in the repair or elimination of damaged neurons, Dr. Winter AN, the team leader scientist at joint study led by the University of Denver, launched an evaluate to compare the ability of same derivatives of anthocyanins, callistephin (pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside) and kuromanin (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) in the protection of cerebellar granule neurons from damage induced by either oxidative or nitrosative stress.

Both callistephin (pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside) and kuromanin protected neurons from oxidative stress induced by glutamate excitotoxicity, observed under conditions of nitrosative stress.

Numerous neurotrophic factors seem to mediate neuronal repair and viability, but because the neurotrophic factors are proteins or polypeptides, they cannot be given orally and do not enter the brain if given intravenously.

However, only kuromanin displayed the capacity to defend neurons from nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. 

The team at the final report, said, "(There must be) a unique mechanism by which slight structural variances, specifically the absence or presence of a catechol moiety, lend kuromanin the unique ability to generate superoxide, which acts as a scavenger of NO".

These results suggested that anthocyanins may be used for treating neurodegenerative diseases, even kuromanin and compounds that share similar chemical characteristics may be more effective than the therapeutic agents forthan callistephin and related (non-catechol) compounds.

In the summary Dr. Shukitt-Hale B, the lead scientist at the USDA-ARS Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University there is no coincidence that the berry fruit supplementation, polyphenolic compounds found in berry fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, exerted their beneficial effects either through their ability to lower oxidative stress and inflammation or directly by altering the signaling involved in neuronal communication, calcium buffering ability, neuroprotective stress shock proteins.

Taken all together, intake of strawberry daily and regularly may have a profound effect in the protection the brain neurons against the onset of neurological diseases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) The strawberry: composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. by Giampieri F, Tulipani S, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(PubMed)
(2) Phenolic Composition of Strawberry Genotypes at Different Maturation Stages(ACS Publication)
(3) The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease by Stacey E. Seidl and Judith A. Potashkin(Frontiers in Neurology)
(4) Neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins on apoptosis induced by mitochondrial oxidative stress. by Kelsey N, Hulick W, Winter A, Ross E, Linseman D.(PubMed)
(5) Chemical basis for the disparate neuroprotective effects of the anthocyanins, callistephin, and kuromanin, against nitrosative stress by Winter AN1, Ross EK1, Khatter S1, Miller K2, Linseman DA. (PubMed)
(6) Berry fruit supplementation and the aging brain. by Shukitt-Hale B, Lau FC, Joseph JA.(PubMed)
(7) Nutrition and Lifestyle Intervention on Mood and Neurological Disorders by Null G1, Pennesi L2, Feldman M. (PubMed)

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