Thursday, 1 November 2018

Green Tea and its Bioactive Polyphenol Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) in the Alleviated Symptoms, Reduced Risk and Treatment of Arthritis

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Green tea may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reducing risk, progression, and treatment of arthritis, some scientists suggested.

Arthritis is a chronic condition characterized by painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.

According to statistic, arthritis is the common autoimmune disorder affected over 50 million worldwide.

The exact causes of arthritis are unknown, Some researchers suggested that longterm use in stimulating the wear and tear is a major cause of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common forms of arthritis.

An infection or injury to the joints that were not treated properly can also exacerbate the natural breakdown of cartilage tissue, leading to arthritis in the later life.

Certain risk factors proved by clinical trials and human studies such as overweight and obesity, occupations that require the use of hand or leg in the repetitive movement, including knee bending and squatting are associated with the early onset of arthritis.

Smoking, family history, gender and gene mutation inherited from the parents, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, are also considered some prevalent risk factors of the disease.

Depending on the type of arthritis that affects the patients. Patients with arthritis may be experiencing symptoms of pain stiffness swelling and reduced the range of motion. If you have some of the above symptoms, you may already be infected by arthritis.

Moreover, if you are taking medicine to alleviate symptoms of arthritis, please make sure that you discuss the side effects with your doctor.

According to the Arthritis Foundation, long-term untreated rheumatoid arthritis can complicate the risk of heart disease.

Green tea is a precious drink processed numbers of health benefit known to almost everyone in Asia and the Western world.

According to the College of Pharmacy, green tea epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) in preclinical studies displayed a significant effect in the treatment of arthritic disease.

In vitro, application of green tea extract EGCG demonstrated activities in cartilage-preserving and chondroprotective action through reducing expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6 and modulated extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover-induced changes of the biomechanical environment of chondrocytes and accelerate the degradation of cartilage as well as driving the progression of the disease in the presence of inflammation.

Normal extracellular matrix (ECM) is a composed collagen type II with a function to provide tensile support for the tissue.

Further analysis in the expression of proinflammatory factors researchers found that the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 associated correlatively in knee joints in arthritis were inhibited by green tea EGCG.

Some researchers also suggested that interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a crucial mediator of the inflammatory response, playing an important part in the body's natural responses and the development of pathological conditions that lead to chronic inflammation.

In the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin), application of green tea inhibited the levels of TNFα , the proinflammatory cytokine with a function in inducing synovial fibroblast cytotoxicity.

Interestingly, in the study to evaluate the possible effects of the administration of green tea extract on the oxidative state of the liver and brain of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, researchers indicated that green tea daily doses of 250 mg kg(-1) (59.8 mg catechins per kg) for 23 days displays a strong effect in decreased symptoms of arthritis by ameliorated diminutions in protein and lipid damage in liver, brain and plasma, through antioxidant effect in reduced levels of ROS in the stimulation of  free radical chain reaction to initiate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in precipitating chronic diseases.

Rats treated with green tea EGCG also showed a significant improvement in restoring the natural antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and protein thiol levels produced by the body.

Moreover, green tea injection also normalized the activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is increased in the liver of arthritic patients and considered a risk factor for the development of arthritis. 

Increased activity glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in oxidative metabolism that inflicts damage on all classes of macromolecules.

Additional differentiation of green tea EGCG immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms on experimental arthritis induced by collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, compared to control received phosphate buffered saline (PBS), researchers found that application of green tea EGCG at dose of 10 mg/kg demonstrated a strong effect in ameliorating clinical symptoms and reducing histological scores in arthritic mice, through modulating the immune activity by stimulating the production of the Nrf-2 antioxidant pathway, a major mechanism in the cellular defense against oxidative or electrophilic stress through detoxication and elimination.

EGCG also ameliorated experimental arthritis in mice by eliciting indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma, astrocytes, and microglia in the activation of the immune system to attack the dendritic cell located on the surface on the joint tissue.

Application of the EGCG also increased frequencies of T regs with a dominant role in the suppression of autoimmune pathology.

Some researchers suggested that increased Treg number and/or function in model systems may have a significant effect in both the prevented and reversed arthritis disease.

Taken together, green tea with abundant bioactive polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) may be considered a functional food and supplement in alleviating the symptoms, reducing risk, and treatment of arthritis.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Green tea extract improves the oxidative state of the liver and brain in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis by de Almeida Gonçalves G1, de Sá-Nakanishi AB, Wendt MM, Comar JF, Bersani Amado CA, Bracht A, Peralta RM. (PubMed)
(2) Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Suppresses Autoimmune Arthritis Through Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Expressing Dendritic Cells and the Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2 Antioxidant Pathway by Min SY1, Yan M1, Kim SB2, Ravikumar S1,3, Kwon SR1,4, Vanarsa K1,3, Kim HY4, Davis LS#1, Mohan C(PubMed)
(3) Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in arthritis: progress and promise by Ahmed S1.(PubMed)
(4) Is IL-1 a good therapeutic target in the treatment of arthritis? by Burger D1, Dayer JM, Palmer G, Gabay C.(PubMed)

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