Thursday, 1 November 2018

Banana Enhances the Immune Function Against Infectious Diseases, Scientists Say

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a whole food which processes a potential effect to improve the function of the immune system against infectious micro-pathogens, some studies suggested.

The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders, by activating the systematic immune response.

In the acute phase of infection, macrophages, the first line of immune defenses stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines to the site of infection with an aim to protect the injured or damaged tissue against foreign invasion.

However, overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines can cause damage to the healthy cells and improper healing with the formation of scars.

Immune system disorders are a chronic condition caused by the abnormal under-activity or over-activity of the immune system.

 In an overactive immune system or autoimmune disorders, the immune white blood cells mistakenly attack and damage the bodily tissue.

The underactive immune disorders are also known as the immune deficiency diseases, weakening the immune ability to fight invaders, and increasing the risk of infections.

Dr. Wypych TP, the lead author in the study "The Impact of Diet on Immunity and Respiratory Diseases" wrote, "the "diet hypotheses," pointing to the importance of changes in our dietary habits" and "the interplay between the Western diet, microbiota, and inflammatory conditions".

In other words, the Western diet high in saturated and trans fat, a lot of red meats, processed foods and less in fruits and vegetable may play an important role in either weakening the immune system or causing overactive immune system in the facilitation of the onset of autoimmune diseases.

Banana is the common name of a genus of tropical herbaceous plants. It can grow from 3 to 9 m and belonging to the family of the lily and the orchid.

In the examining the effect of the hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana on human health researchers at the joint study led by the National Pingtung University of Science and Technology launched an evaluation to observe the antibacterial activity from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

The injection od banana hot extracts demonstrated a strong activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella.

Prawn received BPE via injection at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly enhanced the immunity through the increased total hemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days.

The extracts also significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days and levels of antioxidant enzymes in the body.

The survival rates of Macrobrachium rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days, an indication of the improved immune system against the attack of pathogens.

These results suggested that BPE may be a pharmaceutical candidate to be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator through enhancing the immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against infectious stimuli.

Additionally, in the evaluate the antagonistic mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 (an infant isolate), saba starch (banana), and their synbiotic combination against Salmonella Typhimurium SA2093, researchers found that
* The L. plantarum CIF17AN2 exhibited anti-Salmonella mechanisms through secretion of antimicrobial compounds, adhesion ability and competitive adhesion to mucin on HT-29 cell line.

* The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 on the Salmonella inhibition was significantly reduced in the presence of human fecal microflora.

* The combination of saba starch with L. plantarum CIF17AN2 showed the greatest inhibition against Sal. Typhimurium SA2093 in the colon model.

* The enhancement of anti-Salmonella activity due to the addition of saba starch corresponded a significant decrease in pH and an increase of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids.

These results suggested that banana starch can be used alone or combined with other ingredients for the treatment of Salmonella T. infection.

Taken altogether, banana may be considered a function in enhancing the immune function against microorganisms, which cause infectious diseases, depending on the confirmation of further data collection from the large example size and multi-center studies in human.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii by Rattanavichai W1, Cheng W. (PubMed)
(2) Antagonistic mechanisms of synbiosis between Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 and green banana starch in the proximal colon model challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium by Uraipan S1, Brigidi P2, Hongpattarakere T3. (PubMed)
(3) The Impact of Diet on Immunity and Respiratory Diseases by Wypych TP1, Marsland BJ1, Ubags NDJ.(PubMed)

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