Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Oxidative stress can induce impairment of bone mass and fragility fractures through its effects in causing apoptosis in osteoblasts, due to continuously generated of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2-induced oxidative damage-implications(246) involved lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA lesions of that exhibit the increased risk of osteoporosis(245)(248).
Antioxidants may have a direct and profound influence to the risk factor of osteoporosis(306), due to its effect in bone turn over. Oxidative stress (OS) continuous generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2-induced oxidative damage-implications has found to consist a correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and OS in postmenopausal women, according to the jopint study lead by the Aligarh Muslim University(307).
Lycopene found abundantly in tomato, watermelon, grapefruit has significantly increased antioxidant capacity and decreased oxidative stress, through activation of bone resorption markers in reduced the risk of osteoporosis(308). On postmenopausal models, risk of osteoporosis increase by 10 fold due to reduce production of Sex hormones. Treatment with lycopene suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength through down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with improved oxidative damage activities(309).
Recent study also suggested that lycopene inhibit bone resorption(310)(311), facilitates bone formation(311) and improved bone mineral density(311) and rat skeletal system in experimental conditions(310).
2. Omega 3 Fatty acid
Omega 3 Fatty acid found abundantly in deep sea fishes, and seeds such flax seed may contribute to the reduced and preventive risk of osteopororsis(312) through intervention of the decreased osteoclastogenesis and loss of bone mass(313). But according to the joint study by Université d'Auvergne, due to fatty acid function in trigger several different independent pathways (receptors, metabolites…), its effects on bone metabolism may require further integrated study(314).
Lignans,an phytoestrogen antioxidant found in flax, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy, sesame,etc,..may be a potential sources for ameliorating the post-menopausal osteoporosis as its effects on bone mineral density through significantly decrease in the levels of serum bone turnover markers osteocalcin(322) and alkaline phosphatas(323). According to the recent joint study lead by Jinan University, phytoestrogen ligans significantly promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation and increased osteoblastic
(UMR106)(325)(324) cell numbers of that can induce the bone minera ldensity protective effects(324).
(307Correlation between bone mineral density and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by Sharma T1, Islam N2, Ahmad J3, Akhtar N4, Beg M1.(PubMed)
(308) Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type I collagen in postmenopausal women by Mackinnon ES1, Rao AV, Josse RG, Rao LG.(PubMed)
(309) Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model by Ardawi MM1, Badawoud MH2, Hassan SM2, Rouzi AA3, Ardawi JM4, AlNosani NM5, Qari MH6, Mousa SA7.(PubMed)
(310) [Effects of lycopene on the skeletal system].[Article in Polish] by Sołtysiak P1, Folwarczna J1.(PubMed)
(311) Lycopene intake facilitates the increase of bone mineral density in growing female rats by Iimura Y1, Agata U, Takeda S, Kobayashi Y, Yoshida S, Ezawa I, Omi N.(PubMed)
(312) The impact of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoporosis by Maggio M1, Artoni A, Lauretani F, Borghi L, Nouvenne A, Valenti G, Ceda GP.(PubMed)
(313) Dietary n-3 fatty acids decrease osteoclastogenesis and loss of bone mass in ovariectomized mice by Sun D1, Krishnan A, Zaman K, Lawrence R, Bhattacharya A, Fernandes G.(PubMed)
(314) Pros and cons of fatty acids in bone biology by Wauquier F1, Léotoing L1, Philippe C1, Spilmont M1, Coxam V1, Wittrant Y2.(PubMed)
(315) Resveratrol improves oxidative stress and prevents the progression of periodontitis via the activation of the Sirt1/AMPK and the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathways in a rat periodontitis model by Tamaki N1, Cristina Orihuela-Campos R2, Inagaki Y3, Fukui M2, Nagata T3, Ito HO2.(PubMed)
(316) Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.
Bhattarai G1, Poudel SB1, Kook SH2, Lee JC3.(PubMed)