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Sunday, 13 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis: Top foods to reduce risk of inflammation, according herbal and TCM medicine specialist

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).


                               The Treatment

B. In herbal  and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
B.2. Diet modification according herbal and TCM medicine specialist
1. Top foods to reduce risk of inflammation
Epidemiological studiesin human and animal have insisted of pro-inflammatory cytokines as primary mediators of the accelerated bone loss at menopause in which interfering the activation of osteoclasts and stimulators of osteoclastic bone resorption(391).
According to the study lead by the St Vincent's University Hospital Dublin, osteoporosis is found to associate to abnormal bone turnover, systemic inflammation and ultimately increased bone loss and fractures(392)
Dr. Jakob F. and research team at the Universität Würzburg said "....impaired inosteoporosis and during aging. Bone resorption is enhanced by chronic inflammation while bone formation is altered by rising levels of inhibitors in the aging organism,.."(393)

1. 1. Garlic
Garlic, one of the top food with property on modulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines associated to postmenopausal bone loss(394) due to aging in reduced production of estrogen. The recent study by the Presidency College, suggested that oil extract of garlic promotes and preserve skeletal health in attenuate bone loss by expression of estrogenic effects through reduced oxidative stress of peritoneal macrophages, lymphocytes and serum interleukins(395) and enhanced intestinal transference of calcium(396).
In ovariectomized rat model, garlic oil in comparison with lovastatin exhibited anti bone loss its reflected onhigher bone densities and higher bone mineral contents(397) as well as induced positively in suppressing ovariectomy-bone resorption(398)..

1.2. Turmeric
Turmeric with the similar property as garlic in enhancing immune system fighting against inflammation caused by either free radicals and foreign invasion(399)(400). Used in tradition medicine to relieve menopausal symptoms, the antioxidant also promoted production of bone structural genes, increased the osteoprotegerin to RANKL ratio and supported mineralization more efficiently, according to the Mahidol University(401), as well as reduced trabecular bone loss and prevented deterioration of bone microarchitecture by suppressing the rate of bone turnover(402) probably due to its phytoestrogenic effects(401). DR. Shishodia S and the research team at the The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center said " The efficacy, pharmacologic safety, and cost effectiveness of curcuminoids prompt us to "get back to our roots.""(403) due to its effects for treatment of several diseases(403).

1.3. Green tea
Green tea, a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years, is considered as one the top antioxidants and anti inflammatory agent (404)(405). Epidemiological studies suggested that green tea benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength(406), exhibited osteogenic differentiation(407) and reduced risk of osteoporosis(408).

1.4. Shiitake mushrooms
Shiitake mushroom is an edible mushroom with anti inflammatory activity through activated the immune effects and enhance cell resistance to bacterial infections(409).
According to the study by the College of Veterinary Medicine, D3 found in mushroom improved osteoporosis-like symptoms through it effects on improved bone mineralization by inducing the expression of calcium-absorbing genes found in the duodenum and kidney(410).

1.5. Onion


Onion, with the same properties as of garlic, also consisted the anti osteoporosis property through its effects on increased bone density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women 50 years and older(411). The Universitätsspital/Inselspital Bern. on the expression of Osteoporosis diet suggested that intake of vegetables from onion family inhibits bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner(412). Dr. Tang CH and the research team at the China Medical University said "water solution of onion crude powder inhibits osteoclastogenesis from co-cultures of bone marrow stromal cells and macrophage cells via attenuation of RANKL-induced ERK, p38 and NF-kappaB activation"(413).


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References
(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) Osteoporosis(Life extension)
(5) Growth hormone and bone by Ohlsson C1, Bengtsson BA, Isaksson OG, Andreassen TT, Slootweg MC.(PubMed)
(6) GH and bone--experimental and clinical studies by Isaksson OG1, Ohlsson C, Bengtsson BA, Johannsson G.(PubMed)
(391) Osteoporosis and inflammation by Mundy GR1.(PubMed)
(392) An association between abnormal bone turnover, systemic inflammation, and osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis: a case-matched study by Duggan SN1, Purcell C1, Kilbane M2, O'Keane M2, McKenna M2, Gaffney P3, Ridgway PF1, Boran G3, Conlon KC4.(PubMed)
(393) [Regulation of bone metabolism in osteoporosis : Novel drugs for osteoporosis in development].[Article in German]by Jakob F1, Genest F2, Baron G2, Stumpf U3, Rudert M2, Seefried L2.(PubMed)
(394) The effect of garlic tablet on pro-inflammatory cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: a randomized controlled clinical trial by Mozaffari-Khosravi H1, Hesabgar HA, Owlia MB, Hadinedoushan H, Barzegar K, Fllahzadeh MH.(PubMed)
(395) Role of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes in the development of hypogonadal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model: possible phytoestrogenic efficacy of oil extract of garlic to preserve skeletal health by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Das D, Mukherjee S, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(396) Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Das D, Mukherjee S, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(397) Effects of garlic oil on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats: comparison with the effects of lovastatin and 17beta-estradiol by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Das D, Mukherjee S, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(398) Prevention of bone loss by oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) in an ovariectomized rat model ofosteoporosis by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(399) Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa) by Chainani-Wu N1.(PubMed)
(400) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin by Menon VP1, Sudheer AR.(PubMed)
(401) A diarylheptanoid phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, 1,7-diphenyl-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, accelerates human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation by Tantikanlayaporn D1, Robinson LJ, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P, Blair HC.(PubMed)
(402) Bone sparing effect of a novel phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in ovariectomized rats by Tantikanlayaporn D1, Wichit P, Weerachayaphorn J, Chairoungdua A, Chuncharunee A, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P.(PubMed)
(403) Curcumin: getting back to the roots by Shishodia S1, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB.(PubMed)
(404) The acute effects of green tea and carbohydrate coingestion on systemic inflammation and oxidative stress during sprint cycling by Suzuki K1, Takahashi M1, Li CY2, Lin SP3, Tomari M1, Shing CM4, Fang SH5.(PubMed)
(405) Green tea polyphenols change the profile of inflammatory cytokine release from lymphocytes of obese and lean rats and protect against oxidative damage by Molina N1, Bolin AP1, Otton R2.(PubMed)
(406) Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet by Shen CL1, Han J2, Wang S3, Chung E4, Chyu MC5, Cao JJ6(PubMed)
(407) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as a pro-osteogenic agent to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow: an in vitro study by Jin P1, Wu H, Xu G, Zheng L, Zhao J.(PubMed)
(408) Dietary patterns and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal korean women by Park SJ1, Joo SE, Min H, Park JK, Kim Y, Kim SS, Ahn Y.(PubMed)
(409) A natural formulation (imoviral™) increases macrophage resistance to LPS-induced oxidative and inflammatorystress in vitro by Menghini L1, Leporini L1, Pintore G2, Ferrante C1, Recinella L1, Orlando G1, Vacca M1, Brunetti L1.(PubMed)
(410) Dietary calcium and vitamin D2 supplementation with enhanced Lentinula edodes improves osteoporosis-like symptoms and induces duodenal and renal active calcium transport gene expression in mice by Lee GS1, Byun HS, Yoon KH, Lee JS, Choi KC, Jeung EB.(PubMed)
(411) The association between onion consumption and bone density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women 50 years and older by Matheson EM1, Mainous AG 3rd, Carnemolla MA.(PubMed)
(412) [Osteoporosis diet].[Article in German] by Morselli B1, Neuenschwander B, Perrelet R, Lippuner K.(PubMed)
(413) Water solution of onion crude powder inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through ERK, p38 and NF-kappaB pathways by Tang CH1, Huang TH, Chang CS, Fu WM, Yang RS.(PubMed)