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Saturday, 12 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis Treatment : Life style modification herbal and traditional Chinese medicine perspective

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).


                               The Treatment

B. In herbal  and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
B.1. Life style modification according herbal and TCM medicine specialist
Life style modification has shown to be beneficiary for patients with osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis to improve musculoskeletal and bone health and reduce disability, according to the University of Tasmania(383). Modern herbal and TCM medicine specialists may suggest the following
1. Maintain proper weight
Lean women and women with abnormal weight change are found to associate the risk factors and risk of proximal femur bone loss(384).
According to the joint study lead by the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, Postmenopausal weight change such as weight gain, weight loss, and intentional weight loss are associated with increased incidence of fracture, including upper limbs, lower limbs, and central body; hip fracture,...(385). 

2. Physical activity
Exercise, today is less popular leisure-time activity in many countries throughout the Western world, especially in the youth due to promotion of information collection through mobile phone. According to study, moderate exercise, has found to prevent and ameliorated the risk of osteoporosis(389). A physically active women has found to associate to reduce risk of osteoporosis (384) in compared with physically inactive women(386). According to the Federal University of São Paulo, physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis, as it improves bone microarchitecture, bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function(387), through the stimulation of bone tissue, muscle strength and muscle contraction(387).
6-month whole body vibration training, in older women reduced risk factors for falls and fractures, the Faculteit Lichamelijke Opvoeding en Kinesitherapie suggested(388).

Exercise training showed to  reduce bone turnover, improve hip bonemineral density despite decline in bone-active hormones in in obese hormone decreased aging adults(390).

3. Stop smoking
Smoking, a behavioral risk factor has long been known for its negative effects on over health, causing 3.3 billions pounds of unnecessary burden to the health care system on UK alone(428).
The 2003/2004 South African Demographic and Health Survey, suggested that smoking is positively associated with osteoporosis and lifetime use of both snuff and cigarettes may increase risk osteoporosis among women who are 40 years and older(429). DR. Kim KH, and the research team at the Seoul National University College of Medicine in the study of second hand smoke said " postmenopausal never-smoking Korean women, exposure to SHS was positively associated with osteoporosis". Postmenopausal Women who are exposured to SMS are found to associate to increased occurrences for lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis if hercohabitant smokers consumed ≥20 cigarettes/day(430). 
In fact, the researchers at the Catholic University of Korea in the study of smoking relationship between smoking and bone mineral density (BMD) showed that urinary continence level is directly related to the BMD at femur neck, total femur, and lumbar spine among postmenopausal females in dose depend-manner(431).

4. Alcoholism
Moderate alcohol drinking has long been associated to over all health and longevity. In dose depent-manner, alcohol intake among menopausal women are highly significant correlated with osteoporosis, causing the quantity and quality of BMD declines gradually or even rapidly(432). A radiographic survey of 96 fully ambulatory male patient with chronic alcoholism between age ranged from 24 to 62 year showed that osteoporosis is found in most of the patient regardless of age. Bone loss has also found in patient relatively young from age 31 to 45 years(427).
The joint study lead by State University of Sao Paulo also insisted that chronic alcoholism may affect bones in general through induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes and bone cells(433).


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination

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References
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(360)
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(433) Alcoholic and isocaloric diet, but not ovariectomy, influence the apoptosis of bone cells within the alveolar bone crest of rats by Marchini AM1, Gonçalves LL2, Salgado MC1, do Prado RF1, Marchini L3, Carvalho YR1, da Rocha RF1.(PubMed)