Saturday, 12 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis Treatment : Life style modification herbal and traditional Chinese medicine perspective

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia


Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).

                               The Treatment

B. In herbal  and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
B.1. Life style modification according herbal and TCM medicine specialist
Life style modification has shown to be beneficiary for patients with osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis to improve musculoskeletal and bone health and reduce disability, according to the University of Tasmania(383). Modern herbal and TCM medicine specialists may suggest the following
1. Maintain proper weight
Lean women and women with abnormal weight change are found to associate the risk factors and risk of proximal femur bone loss(384).
According to the joint study lead by the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, Postmenopausal weight change such as weight gain, weight loss, and intentional weight loss are associated with increased incidence of fracture, including upper limbs, lower limbs, and central body; hip fracture,...(385). 

2. Physical activity
Exercise, today is less popular leisure-time activity in many countries throughout the Western world, especially in the youth due to promotion of information collection through mobile phone. According to study, moderate exercise, has found to prevent and ameliorated the risk of osteoporosis(389). A physically active women has found to associate to reduce risk of osteoporosis (384) in compared with physically inactive women(386). According to the Federal University of São Paulo, physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis, as it improves bone microarchitecture, bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function(387), through the stimulation of bone tissue, muscle strength and muscle contraction(387).
6-month whole body vibration training, in older women reduced risk factors for falls and fractures, the Faculteit Lichamelijke Opvoeding en Kinesitherapie suggested(388).

Exercise training showed to  reduce bone turnover, improve hip bonemineral density despite decline in bone-active hormones in in obese hormone decreased aging adults(390).

3. Stop smoking
Smoking, a behavioral risk factor has long been known for its negative effects on over health, causing 3.3 billions pounds of unnecessary burden to the health care system on UK alone(428).
The 2003/2004 South African Demographic and Health Survey, suggested that smoking is positively associated with osteoporosis and lifetime use of both snuff and cigarettes may increase risk osteoporosis among women who are 40 years and older(429). DR. Kim KH, and the research team at the Seoul National University College of Medicine in the study of second hand smoke said " postmenopausal never-smoking Korean women, exposure to SHS was positively associated with osteoporosis". Postmenopausal Women who are exposured to SMS are found to associate to increased occurrences for lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis if hercohabitant smokers consumed ≥20 cigarettes/day(430). 
In fact, the researchers at the Catholic University of Korea in the study of smoking relationship between smoking and bone mineral density (BMD) showed that urinary continence level is directly related to the BMD at femur neck, total femur, and lumbar spine among postmenopausal females in dose depend-manner(431).

4. Alcoholism
Moderate alcohol drinking has long been associated to over all health and longevity. In dose depent-manner, alcohol intake among menopausal women are highly significant correlated with osteoporosis, causing the quantity and quality of BMD declines gradually or even rapidly(432). A radiographic survey of 96 fully ambulatory male patient with chronic alcoholism between age ranged from 24 to 62 year showed that osteoporosis is found in most of the patient regardless of age. Bone loss has also found in patient relatively young from age 31 to 45 years(427).
The joint study lead by State University of Sao Paulo also insisted that chronic alcoholism may affect bones in general through induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes and bone cells(433).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination

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(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) Osteoporosis(Life extension)
(5) Growth hormone and bone by Ohlsson C1, Bengtsson BA, Isaksson OG, Andreassen TT, Slootweg MC.(PubMed)
(6) GH and bone--experimental and clinical studies by Isaksson OG1, Ohlsson C, Bengtsson BA, Johannsson G.(PubMed)
(383) Lifestyle modifications to improve musculoskeletal and bone health and reduce disability--a life-course approach by Jones G1, Winzenberg TM2, Callisaya ML3, Laslett LL4.(PubMed)
(384) Bone loss, physical activity, and weight change in elderly women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study by Nguyen TV1, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA.(PubMed)
(385) Postmenopausal weight change and incidence of fracture: post hoc findings from Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials by Crandall CJ1, Yildiz VO2, Wactawski-Wende J3, Johnson KC4, Chen Z5, Going SB6, Wright NC7, Cauley JA8.(PubMed)
(386) Independent predictors of all osteoporosis-related fractures among healthy Saudi postmenopausal women: the CEOR Study by Rouzi AA1, Al-Sibiani SA, Al-Senani NS, Radaddi RM, Ardawi MS.(PubMed)
(387) Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function ofpostmenopausal women by Moreira LD1, Oliveira ML1, Lirani-Galvão AP1, Marin-Mio RV1, Santos RN1, Lazaretti-Castro M1.(PubMed)
(388) Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control inpostmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study by Verschueren SM1, Roelants M, Delecluse C, Swinnen S, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S.(PubMed)
(389) Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors by Borer KT1.(PubMed)
(390) Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip bonemineral density induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones by Shah K1, Armamento-Villareal R, Parimi N, Chode S, Sinacore DR, Hilton TN, Napoli N, Qualls C, Villareal DT.(PubMed)
(391) Osteoporosis and inflammation by Mundy GR1.(PubMed)
(392) An association between abnormal bone turnover, systemic inflammation, and osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis: a case-matched study by Duggan SN1, Purcell C1, Kilbane M2, O'Keane M2, McKenna M2, Gaffney P3, Ridgway PF1, Boran G3, Conlon KC4.(PubMed)
(393) [Regulation of bone metabolism in osteoporosis : Novel drugs for osteoporosis in development].[Article in German]by Jakob F1, Genest F2, Baron G2, Stumpf U3, Rudert M2, Seefried L2.(PubMed)
(394) The effect of garlic tablet on pro-inflammatory cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: a randomized controlled clinical trial by Mozaffari-Khosravi H1, Hesabgar HA, Owlia MB, Hadinedoushan H, Barzegar K, Fllahzadeh MH.(PubMed)
(395) Role of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes in the development of hypogonadal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model: possible phytoestrogenic efficacy of oil extract of garlic to preserve skeletal health by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Das D, Mukherjee S, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(396) Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Das D, Mukherjee S, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(397) Effects of garlic oil on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats: comparison with the effects of lovastatin and 17beta-estradiol by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Das D, Mukherjee S, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(398) Prevention of bone loss by oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) in an ovariectomized rat model ofosteoporosis by Mukherjee M1, Das AS, Mitra S, Mitra C.(PubMed)
(399) Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa) by Chainani-Wu N1.(PubMed)
(400) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin by Menon VP1, Sudheer AR.(PubMed)
(401) A diarylheptanoid phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, 1,7-diphenyl-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, accelerates human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation by Tantikanlayaporn D1, Robinson LJ, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P, Blair HC.(PubMed)
(402) Bone sparing effect of a novel phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in ovariectomized rats by Tantikanlayaporn D1, Wichit P, Weerachayaphorn J, Chairoungdua A, Chuncharunee A, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P.(PubMed)
(403) Curcumin: getting back to the roots by Shishodia S1, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB.(PubMed)
(404) The acute effects of green tea and carbohydrate coingestion on systemic inflammation and oxidative stress during sprint cycling by Suzuki K1, Takahashi M1, Li CY2, Lin SP3, Tomari M1, Shing CM4, Fang SH5.(PubMed)
(405) Green tea polyphenols change the profile of inflammatory cytokine release from lymphocytes of obese and lean rats and protect against oxidative damage by Molina N1, Bolin AP1, Otton R2.(PubMed)
(406) Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet by Shen CL1, Han J2, Wang S3, Chung E4, Chyu MC5, Cao JJ6(PubMed)
(407) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as a pro-osteogenic agent to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow: an in vitro study by Jin P1, Wu H, Xu G, Zheng L, Zhao J.(PubMed)
(408) Dietary patterns and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal korean women by Park SJ1, Joo SE, Min H, Park JK, Kim Y, Kim SS, Ahn Y.(PubMed)
(409) A natural formulation (imoviral™) increases macrophage resistance to LPS-induced oxidative and inflammatorystress in vitro by Menghini L1, Leporini L1, Pintore G2, Ferrante C1, Recinella L1, Orlando G1, Vacca M1, Brunetti L1.(PubMed)
(410) Dietary calcium and vitamin D2 supplementation with enhanced Lentinula edodes improves osteoporosis-like symptoms and induces duodenal and renal active calcium transport gene expression in mice by Lee GS1, Byun HS, Yoon KH, Lee JS, Choi KC, Jeung EB.(PubMed)
(411) The association between onion consumption and bone density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women 50 years and older by Matheson EM1, Mainous AG 3rd, Carnemolla MA.(PubMed)
(412) [Osteoporosis diet].[Article in German] by Morselli B1, Neuenschwander B, Perrelet R, Lippuner K.(PubMed)
(413) Water solution of onion crude powder inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through ERK, p38 and NF-kappaB pathways by Tang CH1, Huang TH, Chang CS, Fu WM, Yang RS.(PubMed)
(416) Salmon calcitonin (Miacalcic) nasal spray in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis by Gennari C1.(PubMed)
(417) A randomized trial of nasal spray salmon calcitonin in men with idiopathic osteoporosis: effects on bone mineral density and bone markers by Trovas GP1, Lyritis GP, Galanos A, Raptou P, Constantelou E.(PubMed)
(418) Effects of salmon calcitonin treatment on serum and synovial fluid bone formation and resorption markers inosteoporosis patients by Atbinici H1, Sipahioğlu S2, Aksoy N3, Baykara İ2, Işıkan UE2.(PubMed)
(419) Salmon calcitonin in the treatment of elderly women with type 2 diabetes complicated with osteoporosis by Dexue L1, Yueyue Z2.(PubMed)
(420) Efficacy and safety of oral recombinant calcitonin tablets in postmenopausal women with low bone mass and increased fracture risk: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial by Binkley N1, Bone H, Gilligan JP, Krause DS.(PubMed)
(421) A systematic review of omega-3 fatty acids and osteoporosis by Tonya S. Orchard,1 Xueliang Pan,2 Fern Cheek,3 Steven W. Ing,4 and Rebecca D. Jackson4(PMC)
(422) SCD1 mediates the influence of exogenous saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes: Effects on cellular stress, inflammatory markers and fatty acid elongation by Ralston JC1, Metherel AH2, Stark KD3, Mutch DM4.(PubMed)
(423) Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine by Bradshaw HB, Leishman E.(PubMed)
(424) Stereological study of the effect of black olive hydroalcoholic extract on osteoporosis in vertebra and tibia in ovariectomized rats by Noorafshan A1, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Tanideh N, Koohpeyma F, Rasooli R, Hajihoseini M, Bakhshayeshkaram M, Hosseinabadi OK.(PubMed)
(425) Olive oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats by Saleh NK1, Saleh HA.(PubMed)
(426) Olive oil in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after artificial menopause by Liu H1, Huang H1, Li B1, Wu D1, Wang F1, Zheng Xh1, Chen Q1, Wu B1, Fan X1.(PubMed)
(427) Chronic alcoholism. Frequently overlooked cause of osteoporosis in men by Spencer H, Rubio N, Rubio E, Indreika M, Seitam A.(PubMed)
(428) The economic burden of ill health due to diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and obesity in the UK: an update to 2006-07 NHS costs by Scarborough P1, Bhatnagar P, Wickramasinghe KK, Allender S, Foster C, Rayner M.(PubMed)
(429) Epidemiological association between osteoporosis and combined smoking and use of snuff among South African women by Ayo-Yusuf OA1, Olutola BG.(PubMed)
(430) Secondhand smoke exposure and osteoporosis in never-smoking postmenopausal women: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by Kim KH1, Lee CM, Park SM, Cho B, Chang Y, Park SG, Lee K.(PubMed)
(431) Dose-related effect of urinary cotinine levels on bone mineral density among Korean females by Myong JP1, Kim HR, Choi SE, Koo JW.(PubMed)
(432) Prevalence and risk factors associated with osteoporosis in women attending menopause clinic at Hat Yai Regional Hospital by Jarupanich T1.(PubMed)
(433) Alcoholic and isocaloric diet, but not ovariectomy, influence the apoptosis of bone cells within the alveolar bone crest of rats by Marchini AM1, Gonçalves LL2, Salgado MC1, do Prado RF1, Marchini L3, Carvalho YR1, da Rocha RF1.(PubMed)

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