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Saturday, 19 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis: The Marvelous Herbal Formulas by Herbal and TCM medicine specialists

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).


                               The Treatment

B. In herbal  and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
B.2. Herbal and Traditional Chinese medicine 
B.2.2.The formulas
1. Taikong Yangxin Prescription
Taikong Yangxin Prescription, Containing 10 Chinese herbs(543), in male Sprague-Dawley rats model, the herbal formula express favorably in significant protective effect against bone loss through increases of the trabecular BMD, bonevolume fraction, trabecular number and thickness(543).
No other studies have been found for this formula.

2. QiBaoMeiRan Wan
The herbal formula is a composition of 7 herbs including Shou Wu, Fu Ling, Niu Xi, Dang Gui, Gou Qi Zi, Bu Gu Zhi and Hei Zhi Ma(546) used in traditional Chinese medicine for nourished kidney yin and tonified blood(545) in menopausal women of that may be a leading canadate for treatment of osteoporosis as a result of etrogenic deficiency(545).  In ovariectomized rat model, QiBaoMeiRan Wan exhibited anti osteoporotic protective effects through increase in serum alkaline phosphatase, bone Gla-protein and C-telopeptide fragments of type I collagen and decreased the decline of serum calcium and phosphorus in the circulation, the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences suggested(544).

3. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction
Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction, is a composition of herbal medicine for treatment of osteoporosis in menopausal women(547), through its anti  estrogenic deprivation effects. According to the joint study lead by the Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, administration of the decoration exhibited inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption through suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB transcription(548) via selective estrogenic receptors.
Dr. Gui Y and the research team at the Fudan University showed that oral administration of Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD)in rat model increased DHEA and inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner(549).

4. Xianlinggubao prescription
The herbal formula is a register prescription of traditional Chinese medicine for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis with some identified compound, including phenylpropanoids have found to reduced bone loss through the effects on bone mass, bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone turnover markers(550). According to the The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Xianlinggubao (XLGB) improved bone density, microarchitecture, and mechanical strength,... through its estrogenic  action in anti deterioration of musculoskeletal tissues(551).
5. Er-Xian Decoction
Er-Xian Decoration is a herbal composition containing Xian Mao, Yin Yang Huo, Ba Ji Tian, Dang Gui, Huang Bo and Zhi Mu used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of menopausal symptoms(552) and estrogenic deficient osteoporosis(553) through partially the ER signaling pathway(553). According to the study by the Second Military Medical University, Er-Xian decoction (EXD) not only exhibited a protective effect against bone loss in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats through inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption but also improved the ratio of protein expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL in osteoblasts(554) through its interaction of phytochemicals effects oficariin, curculigoside, and berberine(554).
Combination with epimedium herbs, and icariin also expressed the anti osteoporotic activity through emulated estrogen and improved bone density and architecture, the Second Military Medical University suggested (555).

6. Liu Wei Di Huang Wan
The herbal formula is a composition of  Shu Di Huang, Shan Zhu Yu, Mu Dan Pi, Shan Yao, Fu Ling and Ze Xie used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of varies diseases with kidney and liver yin deficiency. The formula may also be used for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO) due to its phytochemicals orroniside and loganin activities in improved the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and increased the contents of collagen type I and osteocalcin, Dr. Li M and the research team at the Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine suggested(557).
In  a 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) ovariectomy (OVX) rat, intragastric administration improve bone density through significantly decrease the serum level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (BGP) in serum(556).

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You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
By addressing the Underlying Causes through Clinical Trials and Studies

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References
(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) Osteoporosis(Life extension)
(4) Hormone and bone by Francisco Bandeira1, Marise Lazaretti-Castro2, John P. Bilezikian3
(5) Growth hormone and bone by Ohlsson C1, Bengtsson BA, Isaksson OG, Andreassen TT, Slootweg MC.(PubMed)
(6) GH and bone--experimental and clinical studies by Isaksson OG1, Ohlsson C, Bengtsson BA, Johannsson G.(PubMed)


(541) Suppression of mast cell activity contributes to the osteoprotective effect of an herbal formula containing Herba Epimedii, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Fructus Psoraleae by Chan BC1, Lee HY, Siu WS, Yip KH, Ko CH, Lau CB, Leung PC, Lau HY.(PubMed)
(542) Treatment with qibaomeiran, a kidney-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, antagonizes estrogen decline in ovariectomized rats by Xu Y1, Ma XP, Ding J, Liu ZL, Song ZQ, Liu HN, Lin N.(PubMed)
(543) Bone protection effects of a novel Chinese herbal formula, Taikong Yangxin Prescription (), in hindlimb unloadedrats against bone deterioration by Ko CH1,2, Siu WS1,2, Chan CL1,2, Koon CM1,2, Fung KP1,2, Li YZ3, Li YH3, Leung PC4,5.
(544) Treatment with QiBaoMeiRan, a Chinese herbal formula, prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rat by Xu Y1, Ma X1, An J1, Ding J1, Dai G1, Liu Z2, Song Z2, Lin N1.(PubMed)
(545) Treatment with qibaomeiran, a kidney-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, antagonizes estrogen decline in ovariectomized rats by Xu Y1, Ma XP, Ding J, Liu ZL, Song ZQ, Liu HN, Lin N.(PubMed)
(546) Treatment with qibaomeiran, a kidney-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, antagonizes estrogen decline in ovariectomized rats by Xu Y1, Ma XP, Ding J, Liu ZL, Song ZQ, Liu HN, Lin N.(PubMed)
(547) Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus by Wang L1, Qiu XM1, Gui YY1, Xu YP1, Gober HJ2, Li DJ3.(PubMed)
(548) Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction: inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by abrogation of the RANKL-induced NFATc1 and NF-κB signaling pathways via selective estrogen receptor α by Wang L1, Qiu XM1, Gui YY1, Xu YP1, Gober HJ2, Li DJ3(PubMed)
(549) Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to preventpostmenopausal osteoporosis by Gui Y1, Qiu X, Xu Y, Li D, Wang L.(PubMed)
(550) In vivo screening for anti-osteoporotic fraction from extract of herbal formula Xianlinggubao in ovariectomized mice by Wang X1, He Y2, Guo B2, Tsang MC2, Tu F3, Dai Y3, Yao Z3, Zheng L2, Xie X2, Wang N4, Yao X3, Zhang G2, Qin L1.(PubMed)
(551) Phytoestrogen-rich herb formula "XLGB" prevents OVX-induced deterioration of musculoskeletal tissues at the hip in old rats by Qin L1, Zhang G, Hung WY, Shi Y, Leung K, Yeung HY, Leung P.(PubMed)
(552) A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of a Chinese herbal formula (Er-Xian decoction) for menopausal symptoms in Hong Kong perimenopausal women by Zhong LL1, Tong Y, Tang GW, Zhang ZJ, Choi WK, Cheng KL, Sze SC, Wai K, Liu Q, Yu BX.(PubMed)
(553) Er-xian Decoction exerts estrogen-like osteoprotective effects in vivo and in vitro by Wong KC1, Lee KS, Luk HK, Wan HY, Ho CK, Zhang Y, Wong MS.(PubMed)
(554) Effects and interaction of icariin, curculigoside, and berberine in er-xian decoction, a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, on osteoclastic bone resorption by Xue L1, Jiao L, Wang Y, Nie Y, Han T, Jiang Y, Rahman K, Zhang Q, Qin L.(PubMed)


(555) Comparative effects of er-xian decoction, epimedium herbs, and icariin with estrogen on bone and reproductive tissue in ovariectomized rats by Xue L1, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Han T, Nie Y, Zhao L, Zhang Q, Qin L.(PubMed)
(556) The effects of Liuwei Dihuang on canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteoporosis by Xia B1, Xu B2, Sun Y2, Xiao L3, Pan J3, Jin H4, Tong P5.(PubMed)
(557) The pharmacological effects of morroniside and loganin isolated from Liuweidihuang Wan, on MC3T3-E1 cells by Li M1, Wang W, Wang P, Yang K, Sun H, Wang X.(PubMed)