Monday, 28 December 2015

Most Common Disease of Elder: The Clinical trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis: The Do and do not’s list

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).
The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).

The Prevention and management The Do and do not’s list

1. Prevention recurrent injure to damage menisci
The meniscus is an important tissue because if its function in shock absorption and load distribution in the healthy knee joint(111). A meniscal tear can lead to knee osteoarthritis (OA), but knee OA can also lead to a spontaneous breakdown of meniscal tear and damage to meniscal structure(112). Meniscus damage or recurrent injure might be considered as a signifying feature of incipient OA in middle-aged and elderly people(113).

2. Take precaution if your occupation is at increased risk of osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most important diseases as it frequently affects the active age group of the population contributed to loss of working hours and of disability(114)(115)(117). Compressive, torsional, pulling and angular movements common in certain occupations or sports may result in injuries of soft tissue, thus increasing the development of OA(116).

3. Muscle strengthening and aerobic exercises
Enhanced muscle strengthening with neuromuscular electrical stimulation(118), aerobic exercises(119) and exercice(220)  are effective in reducing pain and improving physical function in patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee(220).

4. Maintain a healthy weight(117)
Increased BMI and obesity are associated with more severe cartilage degeneration(121)(123) as assessed by both morphological and quantitative MRI measurements(122).

5. Avoid dehydration
Dehydration has shown to reduce the mobility of collagen amino acid residues and carbon sugar ring structures in glycosaminoglycans, according to University of Michigan(124) of that may effect the functions of cartilage and induce the risk of OA(125), but dehydration effects are reversible, through the restoration of molecular structure and mobility(124).

6. Avoid intake of inflammatory foods
Loading up on junk foods and fast foods contains high amount of trans fat of that increases the risk of inflammation(126) exhibit pro inflammatory effects(127)  causes of osteoarthritis (OA)(128). Red meat, eggs, and wheat products all contain high amount of arachidonic acid, too much arachidonic acid may be worsen the inflammation process(129), etc.

7. Eat your fruits and vegetables
Fruits and vegetables containning high amount of nutrients and antioxidant(130), can enhance immune defense system(131)within the joint through direct infleuences of transferrin performance for reduction of inflammation(131)(132) as well as suppressing free radicals and the chain of free radicals reaction cause of elevating the swelling and promoting degeneration(133)(134).

8. Replace regular beverage with green tea
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea polyphenol(135)(136), was found to be effective in reducing inflammatory cytokines induced inflammatory diseases(137)(138).

9. Etc.

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination

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(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review by Pereira D1, Peleteiro B, Araújo J, Branco J, Santos RA, Ramos E.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis by Waller B1, Ogonowska-Slodownik A2, Vitor M3, Lambeck J4, Daly D5, Kujala UM6, Heinonen A7.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with kneeosteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang C1, Xie Y2, Luo X3, Ji Q3, Lu C3, He C4, Wang P3.(PubMed)
(6) Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis by Farid R1, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR.(PubMed)
(7) Functional ability, mobility, and pain before and after knee replacement in patients aged 75 and older: a cross-sectional study by Limnell K1, Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Jäntti P, Puolakka T, Jylhä M.(PubMed)
(8) The symptoms of OA and the genesis of pain by David J. Hunter, MBBS PhD,1,2 Jason J. McDougall, BSc PhD,3 and Francis J. Keefe4(PubMed)
(111) The meniscus in knee osteoarthritis by Englund M1, Guermazi A, Lohmander LS.(PubMed)
(112) The role of the meniscus in knee osteoarthritis: a cause or consequence? by Englund M1, Guermazi A, Lohmander SL.(PubMed)
(113) Meniscus pathology, osteoarthritis and the treatment controversy by Englund M1, Roemer FW, Hayashi D, Crema MD, Guermazi A.(PubMed)
(114) Productivity loss due to presenteeism among patients with arthritis: estimates from 4 instruments by Zhang W1, Gignac MA, Beaton D, Tang K, Anis AH; Canadian Arthritis Network Work Productivity Group(PubMed)
(115) Occupational lifting is associated with hip osteoarthritis: a Japanese case-control study. by Yoshimura N1, Sasaki S, Iwasaki K, Danjoh S, Kinoshita H, Yasuda T, Tamaki T, Hashimoto T, Kellingray S, Croft P, Coggon D, Cooper C.(PubMed)
(116) Occupation and osteoarthritis by Genti G.(PubMed)
(117) Risk factors for knee osteoarthritis in Japanese women: heavy weight, previous joint injuries, and occupational activities by Yoshimura N1, Nishioka S, Kinoshita H, Hori N, Nishioka T, Ryujin M, Mantani Y, Miyake M, Coggon D, Cooper C.(PubMed)
(118) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle strengthening in elderly with knee osteoarthritis - a systematic review by de Oliveira Melo M1, Aragão FA, Vaz MA.(PubMed)
(119) Effectiveness of exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee: A review of the literature. by Iwamoto J1, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H.(PubMed)
(120) Effectiveness of exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee: A review of the literature by Iwamoto J1, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H.(PubMed)
(121) Articular Cartilage Degeneration: Etiologic Association With Obesity by Deryk G. Jones, MD(PubMed)
(122) Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging-based knee cartilage T2 measurements and focal knee lesions with body mass index: thirty-six-month followup data from a longitudinal, observational multicenter study by Baum T1, Joseph GB, Nardo L, Virayavanich W, Arulanandan A, Alizai H, Carballido-Gamio J, Nevitt MC, Lynch J, McCulloch CE, Link TM.(PubMed)
(123) The evolving role of obesity in knee osteoarthritis by MaryFran R. Sowers and Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez(PMC)
(124) Solid-state NMR spectroscopy provides atomic-level insights into the dehydration of cartilage by Xu J1, Zhu P, Morris MD, Ramamoorthy A.(PubMed)
(125) Geriatric Rehabilitation Manual By Timothy L. Kauffman
(126) Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in women by Mozaffarian D1, Pischon T, Hankinson SE, Rifai N, Joshipura K, Willett WC, Rimm EB.(PubMed)
(127) Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence by Mozaffarian D1, Aro A, Willett WC.(PubMed)
(128) Metabolic triggered inflammation in osteoarthritis by Wang X1, Hunter D2, Xu J3, Ding C4.(PubMed)
(129) Arachidonic acid metabolism: role in inflammation by Samuelsson B1.(PubMed)
(130) Antagonizing arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids reduces inflammatory Th17 and Th1 cell-mediatedinflammation and colitis severity. by Monk JM1, Turk HF1, Fan YY1, Callaway E1, Weeks B2, Yang P3, McMurray DN4, Chapkin RS5.(PubMed)
(130) Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma by Harasym J1, Oledzki R2.(PubMed)
(131) Dietary antioxidants: immunity and host defense by Puertollano MA1, Puertollano E, de Cienfuegos GÁ, de Pablo MA.(PubMed)
(132) Cellular immunity in osteoarthritis: novel concepts for an old disease by Liossis SN1, Tsokos GC.(PubMed)
(133) Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health by Lien Ai Pham-Huy,1 Hua He,2 and Chuong Pham-Huy3(PMC)
(134) Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors by Khalid Rahman(PMC)
(135) New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate by Hae-Suk Kim,a Michael J. Quon,c and Jeong-a Kima,b(PMC)
(136) Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications by Singh BN1, Shankar S, Srivastava RK.(PubMed)
(137) Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis by Shen CL1, Smith BJ, Lo DF, Chyu MC, Dunn DM, Chen CH, Kwun IS.(PubMed)
(138) Green tea: a new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritis by Katiyar SK, Raman C.(PubMed)

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