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Wednesday, 9 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis - The antioxidant enzymes

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).



                               The Prevention and Management 
The prevention and management of osteoporosis are always important due to the prevalent of the diseases in  in all populations and all ages(221), especially to elder, causing a significant physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences(220).

                                 Antioxidants and Osteoporosis

Oxidative stress can induce impairment of bone mass and fragility fractures through its effects in causing apoptosis in osteoblasts, due to continuously generated of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2-induced oxidative damage-implications(246) involved lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA lesions of that exhibit the increased risk of osteoporosis(245)(248).
Antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase reduced the excessive production of free radicals in the organism, and the imbalance between the concentrations of these and the antioxidant defenses have found to attenuate the risk of osteoporosis (OP) in postmenopausal women, according to the study by the Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine(247). Further more, decrease antioxidant defenses due to aging may also may contribute to this process(250).
Dietary and endogenous antioxidants were consistently lower in patients with osteoporosis, according to University of Perugia, of that can lead to decrease antioxidant defenses and promoting pathogenesis of osteoporosis(249).

The antioxidant enzymes
1. Superoxide dismutase
Superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant enzyme used minerals as cofactors and named accordingly such as Cu-Zn-SOD, Cu-SOD, Fe-SOD, Mn-SOD have played an important role in reduced oxidative stress form of osteoporosis(326). According to the Sun Yat-sen University, SOD-1 inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS),promoted the osteogenic differentiation and Improved osteogenic ability(327) and SOD-2, according to the joint study lead by Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, induce osteocytes causes of age-related bone loss through rescued the impairment of canalicular networks and bone metabolism(328).
Manganese superoxide dismutase(Mn-SOD), in the study by the joint study lead by The Fourth Military Medical University, improved bone homeostasis by maintaining the balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs)(329).

2. Glutathione peroxidase 
Glutathione peroxidase plays a biological role against oxidative damage may be effective in reduced risk of osteoporosis when usedconjunction with lycopene and other antioxidant enzymes(309). Deterioration of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, due to aging have found to associate to increased oxidative stress inducing post menopausal osteoporosis(330).

c. Catalase
Catalase like many other antioxidant enzymes found in all living species with a function in reduced damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS)(331) may held a keys in preventing the loss of bone mineral density and decreased oxidative stress causes of osteoporotic menopausal women(331).
According to the study by King Abdulaziz University,catalase used conjunction with other antioxidant enzymes and lycopepe showed to suppress bone turnover to restore bone strength(309) of that may reduce risk of bone minerald density loss(309).


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References
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