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Thursday, 17 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis: The Splendid and Preventive foods by herbal and TCM medicine specialists

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).


      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).


                               The Treatment

B. In herbal  and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
4. The Preventive foods
4.1. Dry plum
Dry plum is best known for its natural laxative sorbitol used for treatment of constipation and considered as a best candidate for treatment against osteoporosis and osteopenia due to the presence of antioxidants hydroxycinnamic acids(434) and anthocyanins(435).
Some studies of the bone-protective properties of dried plum suggested that the fruit significantly increased the BMD of the ulna and spine through its antioxidant effects on increased RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels in comparison with the control group(436). In postmenopausal women, daily intake of dried plum (100 g/d) significantly increased BMD of ulna and spine through suppressed rate of bone turn over in comparison with the same intake as of apple(437), according to
the Florida State University
Dr. Hooshmand S. and the research team at the San Diego State University and Florida State University suggested ".... the positive effects of dried plum on bone are in part due to the suppression of RANKL production, the promotion of OPG and the inhibition of sclerostin..." of that have a direct control on bone formation via the production of sclerostin and bone resorption(438).

4.2. Apple
Apple, one of the most widely cultivated tree fruit for its nutrients, is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, a species of the rose family Rosaceae, originated in Central Asia. The fruit has long been known for its benefits in cardiovascular protective effects(439).  Dihydrochalcone phloretin, an antioxidant found in apple tree leaves, exert protective effect against estrogen deficiency-induced osteoclastogenic resorption, through its activities involved RANKL-differentiatiation in mature osteoclasts(440). According to Unité des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, phloridzin, an other apple antioxidant polyphenol improved aging and sex hormones deficiency causes of inflammatory and oxidant conditions, inducing pathogenesis of osteoporosis, through promoting inflammation markers and bone resorption(441).

4.3. Tomato
Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongs to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of the recent discovery of its antioxidant, such as lycopene in reduced risk of prostate(442) and cancers(443) and cardiovascular disease(443), tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose and often in green house.
Dr. Sołtysiak P and Dr. Folwarczna J. in the assessement of the effectiveness of carotenoid pigment, lycopene suggested that the phytochemical exhibit a favorable affect the skeletal system such as osseous tissue through inhibited bone resorption(444), the formation of ROS-secreting osteoclasts(445), formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase  + multinucleated osteoclasts(445) of that can result in reduced risk of osteoporosis.
In animal model, lycopene decreased oxidative stress of which has a inversely correlated with BMD and improved BMD through facilitated bone formation and inhibited bone resorption(446).

4.4. Dairy and calcium fortified products
Intake regularly of Dairy(The prevention and management: the Diet-1) and calcium fortified products(The prevention and management: the Diet-5) are both recommended by herbal medicine  for its benefits in induced calcium absorption because of the presence of vitamin D3, but not in traditional Chinese medicine. TCM views dairy products with a extreme dampness presentation(446a) of which induce production of phlegm(446b) causes of many forms of diseases.

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You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
By addressing the Underlying Causes through Clinical Trials and Studies


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References
(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) Osteoporosis(Life extension)
(4) Hormone and bone by Francisco Bandeira1, Marise Lazaretti-Castro2, John P. Bilezikian3
(5) Growth hormone and bone by Ohlsson C1, Bengtsson BA, Isaksson OG, Andreassen TT, Slootweg MC.(PubMed)
(6) GH and bone--experimental and clinical studies by Isaksson OG1, Ohlsson C, Bengtsson BA, Johannsson G.(PubMed)
(434) Oral administration of phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats by Yamaguchi M1, Lai YL, Uchiyama S, Nakagawa T.(PubMed)
(435) Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich maqui berry extract Delphinol®: a review by Watson RR1, Schönlau F.(PubMed)
(436) The effect of dried plum on serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial by Hooshmand S1, Brisco JR1, Arjmandi BH2.(PubMed)
(437) Comparative effects of dried plum and dried apple on bone in postmenopausal women by Hooshmand S1, Chai SC, Saadat RL, Payton ME, Brummel-Smith K, Arjmandi BH.(PubMed)
(438) The effect of dried plum on serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial by Hooshmand S1, Brisco JR1, Arjmandi BH2.(PubMed)
(439) Daily apple versus dried plum: impact on cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women by Chai SC1, Hooshmand S, Saadat RL, Payton ME, Brummel-Smith K, Arjmandi BH.(PubMed)
(440) Phloretin promotes osteoclast apoptosis in murine macrophages and inhibits estrogen deficiency-inducedosteoporosis in mice by Lee EJ1, Kim JL1, Kim YH1, Kang MK1, Gong JH1, Kang YH2.(PubMed)
(441) Prevention of bone loss by phloridzin, an apple polyphenol, in ovariectomized rats under inflammation conditions by Puel C1, Quintin A, Mathey J, Obled C, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Kati-Coulibaly S, Horcajada MN, Coxam V.(PubMed)
(442) Lycopene/tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies by Chen J1, Song Y, Zhang L.(PubMed)
(443) Role of antioxidant lycopene in cancer and heart disease by Rao AV1, Agarwal S.(PubMed)
(444) [Effects of lycopene on the skeletal system].[Article in Polish by Sołtysiak P1, Folwarczna J1.(PubMed)
(445) Lycopene I--effect on osteoclasts: lycopene inhibits basal and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclast formation and mineral resorption mediated by reactive oxygen species in rat bone marrow cultures by Rao LG1, Krishnadev N, Banasikowska K, Rao AV.(PubMed)
(446) Lycopene intake facilitates the increase of bone mineral density in growing female rats by Iimura Y1, Agata U, Takeda S, Kobayashi Y, Yoshida S, Ezawa I, Omi N.(PubMed)
(446a) The Chinese Medicine Diet, Article by Margaret. May 1, 2010