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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).
The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).
Some researchers classified the severity symptoms of osteoarthritis as follow
1. Pain in joints of the hand
Most commonly affected joints of the hand in osteoarthritis include the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (CMC 1) and the distal (DIP) andproximal (PIP) interphalangeal joints. may be resulted of
associated of High Bone Mass in Women and Small Bone Size and Low Lean Mass in Men(9), especially for patient with knee osteoarthritis(10).Ageing(11), female gender(12), genotype(13)(14), heavy work(15)(16) have shown to associate to the pain and pressure on the hands, and injuries predispose to osteoarthritis in the hand(17). The pain may be also due to permeability change in the synovial tissue caused by molecules released from the joint cartilage(18)(19).
2. Knee and Hip
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip is among the most frequent arthritic conditions(19). Some researcher suggested that the pathological joint changes in OA include: cartilage destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines(20), matrix metalloproteinases(21)(22) and prostaglandins(23) in promotion of a catabolic environment(19).
Vertebral deformity, in particular wedging, of the thoracic spine is not exclusively characteristic for osteoporosis(24), but in Europe, it is a marker of vertebral osteoporosis, in different regions and populations(25) and certain vertebral deformities develop by mechanisms other than fracture(26). Osteoporotic fracture of the thoracic spine can induce severe pain in your back, legs, and arms and weakness or numbness in these areas if the fracture injures the nerves of the spine(27)
Osteoarthritis is found to affect the low back can lead to chronic low back pain (lumbago)(28)(29) and degenerative disc disease (spondylosis)(30)(31). Other researchers indicated that postmenopausal women with lumbar spine disc degeneration are as the result of by increased CII degradation(32)(33).
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(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review by Pereira D1, Peleteiro B, Araújo J, Branco J, Santos RA, Ramos E.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis by Waller B1, Ogonowska-Slodownik A2, Vitor M3, Lambeck J4, Daly D5, Kujala UM6, Heinonen A7.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with kneeosteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang C1, Xie Y2, Luo X3, Ji Q3, Lu C3, He C4, Wang P3.(PubMed)
(6) Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis by Farid R1, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR.(PubMed)
(7) Functional ability, mobility, and pain before and after knee replacement in patients aged 75 and older: a cross-sectional study by Limnell K1, Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Jäntti P, Puolakka T, Jylhä M.(PubMed)
(8) The symptoms of OA and the genesis of pain by David J. Hunter, MBBS PhD,1,2 Jason J. McDougall, BSc PhD,3 and Francis J. Keefe4(PubMed)
(9) Osteoarthritis of the Distal Interphalangeal and First Carpometacarpal Joints is Associated with High Bone Mass in Women and Small Bone Size and Low Lean Mass in Men by von Schewelov T1, Magnusson H1, Cöster M1, Karlsson C1, Rosengren BE1.(PubMed)
(10) Patients with knee osteoarthritis have a phenotype with higher bone mass, higher fat mass, and lower lean body mass by Karlsson MK1, Magnusson H, Cöster M, Karlsson C, Rosengren BE.(PubMed)
(11) Ageing and osteoarthritis: a circadian rhythm connection by Gossan N1, Boot-Handford R, Meng QJ.(PubMed)
(12) Osteoarthritis in Latin America: Study of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics in 3040 Patients by Reginato AM1, Riera H, Vera M, Torres AR, Espinosa R, Esquivel JA, Felipe OJ, Blas JR, Rillo O, Papasidero S, Souto R, Rossi C, Molina JF, Ballesteros F,Radrigan F, Guibert M, Chico A, Gil ML, Camacho W, Urioste L, Garcia AK, Iraheta I, Gutierrez CE, Duarte M, Castañeda O, Coimbra I, Muñoz Louis R, Reveille J, Quintero M; Pan-American League of Associations for Rheumatology (PANLAR) Osteoarthritis Study Group.(PubMed)
(13) Vitamin D receptor genotype is associated with radiographic osteoarthritis at the knee by Uitterlinden AG1, Burger H, Huang Q, Odding E, Duijn CM, Hofman A, Birkenhäger JC, van Leeuwen JP, Pols HA.(PubMed)
(14) Estrogen receptor alpha genotype is associated with a reduced prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis in elderly Caucasian women by Lian K1, Lui L, Zmuda JM, Nevitt MC, Hochberg MC, Lee JM, Li J, Lane NE.(PubMed)
(15) Knee osteoarthritis: influence of work involving heavy lifting, kneeling, climbing stairs or ladders, or kneeling/squatting combined with heavy lifting by Jensen LK1.(PubMed)
(16) Hip osteoarthritis: influence of work with heavy lifting, climbing stairs or ladders, or combining kneeling/squatting with heavy lifting by Jensen LK1.(PubMed)
(17) [Osteoarthritis of the thumb and fingers].[Article in Finnish] by Waris E1, Waris V, Konttinen YT.(PubMed)
(18) Role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis: latest findings and interpretation by Jeremy Sokolove and Christin M. Lepus(PMC)
(19) Osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. Part I: aetiology and pathogenesis as a basis for pharmacotherapy. by Adatia A1, Rainsford KD, Kean WF.(PubMed)
(20) CNI-1493, an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokines, retards cartilage destruction in rats with collagen induced arthritis. by Larsson E1, Harris HE, Palmblad K, Månsson B, Saxne T, Klareskog L.(PubMed)
(21) Effective knock down of matrix metalloproteinase-13 by an intra-articular injection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a murine surgically-induced osteoarthritis model. by Akagi R1, Sasho T, Saito M, Endo J, Yamaguchi S, Muramatsu Y, Mukoyama S, Akatsu Y, Katsuragi J, Fukawa T, Takahashi K.(PubMed)
(22) Knee loading reduces MMP13 activity in the mouse cartilage by Hamamura K, Zhang P, Zhao L, Shim JW, Chen A, Dodge TR, Wan Q, Shih H, Na S, Lin CC, Sun HB, Yokota H1.(PubMed)
(23) [Prostaglandin E₂: innovative approaches for tissue engineering of articular cartilage].[Article in German] by Brochhausen-Delius C1.(PubMed)
(24) Aging of the thoracic spine: distinction between wedging in osteoarthritis and fracture in osteoporosis--a cross-sectional and longitudinal study by Abdel-Hamid Osman A1, Bassiouni H, Koutri R, Nijs J, Geusens P, Dequeker J.(PubMed)
(25) The prevalence of vertebral deformity in european men and women: the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study by O'Neill TW1, Felsenberg D, Varlow J, Cooper C, Kanis JA, Silman AJ.(PubMed)
(26) Vertebral Fracture Initiative Part II Radiological Assessment of Vertebral Fracture Authored by: Judith E Adams1 , Leon Lenchik2 , Christian Roux3 and Harry K. Genant4(International Osteoporosis Foundation)
(27) A Patient's Guide to Thoracic Compression Fractures(University of Maryland Medical Center)
(28) [Comparison of the effect of laser and magnetic therapy for pain level and the range of motion of the spine of people with osteoarthritis lower back].[Article in Polish] by Zdrodowska B1, Leszczyńska-Filus M1, Leszczyński R1, Błaszczyk J2.(PubMed)
(29) Development of an Experimental Animal Model for Lower Back Pain by Percutaneous Injury-Induced Lumbar Facet Joint Osteoarthritis. by Kim JS1,2, Ahmadinia K2,3, Li X2, Hamilton JL2, Andrews S4, Haralampus CA2, Xiao G2,5, Sohn HM6, You JW6, Seo YS7, Stein GS8, Van Wijnen AJ9, Kim SG10, Im HJ2,3,11,12,13.(PubMed)
(30) Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, lumbar spondylosis, and osteoporosis in Japanese men and women: the research on osteoarthritis/osteoporosis against disability study by Yoshimura N1, Muraki S, Oka H, Mabuchi A, En-Yo Y, Yoshida M, Saika A, Yoshida H, Suzuki T, Yamamoto S, Ishibashi H, Kawaguchi H, Nakamura K, Akune T.(PubMed)
(31) Association of occupational activity with radiographic knee osteoarthritis and lumbar spondylosis in elderly patients of population-based cohorts: a large-scale population-based study. by Muraki S1, Akune T, Oka H, Mabuchi A, En-Yo Y, Yoshida M, Saika A, Nakamura K, Kawaguchi H, Yoshimura N.(PubMed)
(32) Association between spine disc degeneration and type II collagen degradation in postmenopausal women: the OFELY study by Garnero P1, Sornay-Rendu E, Arlot M, Christiansen C, Delmas PD.(PubMed)
(33) Regeneration of the intervertebral disc with nucleus pulposus cell-seeded collagen II/hyaluronan/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer constructs in a rabbit disc degeneration model. by Huang B1, Zhuang Y, Li CQ, Liu LT, Zhou Y.(PubMed)