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Tuesday, 22 December 2015

Most Common Disease of Elder: The Clinical trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis: Diseases associated with Osteoarthritis

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia



                       Osteoarthritis


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).
The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).

 Diseases associated with osteoarthritis

Researchers suggested that OA is not simply a disease related to aging or mechanical stress of joints but rather a “metabolic disorder(70)(71)” interrelated to lipid, metabolic, and humoral mediators(70). Indeed, OA has been linked not only to obesity(46)(47) but also to other cardiovascular risk factors(72)(73), namely, diabetes(74), dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance(75).
Most people with osteoarthritis also suffer from one or more of below
1. Hypertension
According to the University Health Network Research Institute, the economic burden incurred by RA significantly exceeds that related to OA and HBP(76)(77).

2. Cardiovascular disease
According to Erasmus University Medical Centre, there is an associations of atherosclerosis with osteoarthritis of the knee and hand joints in women(72)(73)(78).

3. Peripheral vascular disease
According to Himchan Hospital, patient with due to osteoarthritis are associated to risk of asymptomatic peripheral vascular disease(80). The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population(79).

4. Congestive heart failure
Hypertension, diabetes, and older age have shown to increased risk of Congestive heart failure modestly(81). Etoricoxib, an annti-inflammatory painkillers showed a statistically significant inhibition at 90 mg in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis(82).

5. Renal function impairment 
According to the Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, pain pharmacotherapies osuch as osteoarthritis (OA) or mixed OA and rheumatoid arthritis may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with concurrent cardiovascular (CV) or renal disease(83). Median excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline in the OA patients as a whole was raised above values found in a healthy control population(84).

6. Diabetes
Several epidemiological and experimental data support the hypothesis that diabetes could be an independent risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA)(76)(85).

7. Respiratory disease
People with Respiratory disease is also at a higher risk to develop osteoarthritis (OA), such as chronic cough and bilateral infiltrates on chest roentgenogram(86).

8. High serum of Cholesterol
There is an association between high serum cholesterol level and both knee and generalized OA, according to the study of 113 females and 133 males with average ages 46 14.2 and 51.54 16.0 years by King Khalid University Hospital(87).

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References
(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review by Pereira D1, Peleteiro B, Araújo J, Branco J, Santos RA, Ramos E.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis by Waller B1, Ogonowska-Slodownik A2, Vitor M3, Lambeck J4, Daly D5, Kujala UM6, Heinonen A7.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with kneeosteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang C1, Xie Y2, Luo X3, Ji Q3, Lu C3, He C4, Wang P3.(PubMed)
(6) Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis by Farid R1, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR.(PubMed)
(7) Functional ability, mobility, and pain before and after knee replacement in patients aged 75 and older: a cross-sectional study by Limnell K1, Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Jäntti P, Puolakka T, Jylhä M.(PubMed)
(8) The symptoms of OA and the genesis of pain by David J. Hunter, MBBS PhD,1,2 Jason J. McDougall, BSc PhD,3 and Francis J. Keefe4(PubMed)
(70) Osteoarthritis: another component of metabolic syndrome? by Velasquez MT1, Katz JD.(PubMed)
(71) [Metabolic syndrome and a course of osteoarthrosis].[Article in Russian] by Korochina IE, Bagirova GG.(PubMed)
(72) Risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with osteoarthritis: a prospective longitudinal study. by Rahman MM1, Kopec JA, Anis AH, Cibere J, Goldsmith CH.(PubMed)
(73) Cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis: common pathways and patient outcomes. by Fernandes GS1, Valdes AM.(PubMed)
(74) Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Osteoarthritis Patients in a Prospective Longitudinal Study by Rahman MM1, Cibere J2, Anis AH3, Goldsmith CH4, Kopec JA5.(PubMed)
(75) Osteoarthritis—the impact of a serious disease by F. C. Breedveld
(76) Bone loss at subchondral plate in knee osteoarthritis patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. by Wen CY1, Chen Y, Tang HL, Yan CH, Lu WW, Chiu KY.(PubMed)
(77) The economic burden associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypertension: a comparative study. by Maetzel A1, Li LC, Pencharz J, Tomlinson G, Bombardier C; Community Hypertension and Arthritis Project Study Team.(PubMed)
(78) Association of atherosclerosis with presence and progression of osteoarthritis: the Rotterdam Study by Hoeven TA1, Kavousi M, Clockaerts S, Kerkhof HJ, van Meurs JB, Franco O, Hofman A, Bindels P, Witteman J, Bierma-Zeinstra S.(PubMed)
(79) Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome? by Kornaat PR1, Sharma R, van der Geest RJ, Lamb HJ, Kloppenburg M, Hellio le Graverand MP, Bloem JL, Watt I.(PubMed)
(80) Asymptomatic peripheral vascular disease in total knee arthroplasty: preoperative prevalence and risk factors. by Park IH1, Lee SC, Park IS, Nam CH, Ahn HS, Park HY, Gondalia VH, Jung KA.(PubMed)
(81) Baseline factors associated with congestive heart failure in patients receiving etoricoxib or diclofenac: multivariate analysis of the MEDAL program by Krum H1, Curtis SP, Kaur A, Wang H, Smugar SS, Weir MR, Laine L, Brater DC, Cannon CP.(PubMed)
(82) Baseline factors associated with congestive heart failure in patients receiving etoricoxib or diclofenac: multivariate analysis of the MEDAL program by Krum H1, Curtis SP, Kaur A, Wang H, Smugar SS, Weir MR, Laine L, Brater DC, Cannon CP.(PubMed)
(83) Pain pharmacotherapy in patients with inflammatory arthritis and concurrent cardiovascular or renal disease: a Cochrane systematic review. by Marks JL1, van der Heijde DM, Colebatch AN, Buchbinder R, Edwards CJ.(PubMed)
(84) Urinary excretion of pyridinium crosslinks of collagen correlated with joint damage in arthritis by Astbury C1, Bird HA, McLaren AM, Robins SP.(PubMed)
(85) Diabetes-induced osteoarthritis: from a new paradigm to a new phenotype by Berenbaum F1.(PubMed)
(86) [Pulmonary infiltrates with blood eosinophilia in a 62-year-old patient].[Article in German] by Kohlhäufl M1, Weber N, Morresi-Hauf A, Geiger D, Raith H, Häussinger K.(PubMed)
(87) Radiographic osteoarthritis and serum cholesterol by Al-Arfaj AS1.(PubMed)