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Thursday, 10 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis - The Natural Plantbased Phytochemicals

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).



                               The Prevention and Management 
The prevention and management of osteoporosis are always important due to the prevalent of the diseases in  in all populations and all ages(221), especially to elder, causing a significant physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences(220).

The  Phytochemicals
Phytochemicals found in plants, especially on their skins, play an important and biological role in human health protection and against many forms of diseases(333). According to the animal and cellular studies by Royal Botanic Gardens, phytochemicals found in dried plum and citrus and berry fruits and dietary phytochemicals exhibited a positive association of reduced risk of osteoporosis(334) through improved BMD, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength(334).
1. Flavonoid
 Flavonoid, a group of phytochemicals, including catechin, and the main ingredient of green tea, have found to process certtain anti diseases and health protective effects, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and diabetes, epidemiologically(335). (-)-Epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin found in Drynariae rhizoma improved bone metabolism, anti-osteoporiotic activities(336) and resorptive action in bone cells(337).through extraction efficacy of polyphenolic compounds in antioxidant activity(336), the Health Care Products Research Laboratories and Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine(337) suggested.
In deed, the reduction of oxidative stress or chronic low-grade inflammation by phytochemicals such as flavonoids is associated positively between total dietary intake and bone mineral density(338).

2. Phenolics
Phenolics found abundantly in fruits, especially in the skin, including anthocyanins and stilbenoids,.. may be a potential phytochemicals in decreased the imbalance of bone turn over on bone metabolism induced risk of osteoporosis(339). According to the Guangdong Medical College study, phenolics isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the roots of Livistona chinensis, exhibited anti-osteoporosis effects through reduction of oxidative stress involved bone formation by osteoblastic cells(340) in rat.
In comparison between pre- and postmenopausal women for effectiveness of phenolics from an oleuropein-rich olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract the Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods suggested that intake of olive phenolics mayprevent age-related and oxidative stress-related osteoporosis(341),

4. Curcumin
Curcumin a diarylheptanoid of turmeric, is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and best known for its antioxidant effects in enhancing the immune system for fighting of the forming of free radicals and foreign invasion of that induced acute and chronic diseases(342). Some researcher has suggested to use curcumin for treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, musculocartilaginous disorders,... due to its efficacy as antioxidant with a significant medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic activities(344).
In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, administration of curcumin in dose dependent-manner promote over all bone health by increased BMD and bone-alkaline phosphatase, decreased carboxy-terminal collagen cross links, enhanced bone mechanical strength, and improved trabecular microstructure, according to Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in rat study(343).
The analytic study of the combination of conjugated GNPs (CGNPs), which can form inclusion complexes with curcumin (CUR-CGNPs) has also found to process a significantly improved bone density and prevented bone loss activities through inhibiting osteoclast (OC) formation and osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages(345).
 
5. Phloridzin
Phloridzin, another antioxidant found mainly in apple has found to process anti high blood glucose levels and improve lipids metabolism in animal model(346). According to the Unité des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, in aging induced change of sex hormones related of that lead to inflammatory and oxidant condition, phloridzin prevented imflammatory condition in ovariectomy-induced bone loss, and improved bone resorption(347).

6. Pectin
Pectin, is a structural heteropolysaccharide found mainly in the in the primary cell walls of  terrestrial plants. Pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple may be an important phytochemical in increased osteoprotective effects mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms(349), such as in increased mineralized matrix formation of osteoblastic cells through production of high amount of galactan in vitro, according to joint study lead by Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup(348).

Due to proven effects of phytochemicals  in bone health, there is a suggestion in determination of scientist to provide the effective doses of phytochemicals and their metabolites in improving bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength of that may reduce the occurrence of osteoporosis(349).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination

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References
(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
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(341) Bioavailability of phenolics from an oleuropein-rich olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract and its acute effect on plasma antioxidant status: comparison between pre- and postmenopausal women by García-Villalba R1, Larrosa M, Possemiers S, Tomás-Barberán FA, Espín JC.(PubMed)
(342) Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases by Bengmark S1.(PubMed)
(343) Curcumin alleviates glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis by protecting osteoblasts from apoptosis in vivo and in vitro by Chen Z1, Xue J2, Shen T1, Ba G1, Yu D1, Fu Q1.(PubMed)
(344) Role of Curcumin in Common Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Review of Current Laboratory, Translational, and Clinical Data by Peddada KV1, Peddada KV2, Shukla SK3, Mishra A3, Verma V4.(PubMed)
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(349) Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection by Shen CL1, von Bergen V, Chyu MC, Jenkins MR, Mo H, Chen CH, Kwun IS.(PubMed)