Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Phenolics found abundantly in fruits, especially in the skin, including anthocyanins and stilbenoids,.. may be a potential phytochemicals in decreased the imbalance of bone turn over on bone metabolism induced risk of osteoporosis(339). According to the Guangdong Medical College study, phenolics isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the roots of Livistona chinensis, exhibited anti-osteoporosis effects through reduction of oxidative stress involved bone formation by osteoblastic cells(340) in rat.
In comparison between pre- and postmenopausal women for effectiveness of phenolics from an oleuropein-rich olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract the Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods suggested that intake of olive phenolics mayprevent age-related and oxidative stress-related osteoporosis(341),
Curcumin a diarylheptanoid of turmeric, is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and best known for its antioxidant effects in enhancing the immune system for fighting of the forming of free radicals and foreign invasion of that induced acute and chronic diseases(342). Some researcher has suggested to use curcumin for treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, musculocartilaginous disorders,... due to its efficacy as antioxidant with a significant medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic activities(344).
In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, administration of curcumin in dose dependent-manner promote over all bone health by increased BMD and bone-alkaline phosphatase, decreased carboxy-terminal collagen cross links, enhanced bone mechanical strength, and improved trabecular microstructure, according to Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in rat study(343).
The analytic study of the combination of conjugated GNPs (CGNPs), which can form inclusion complexes with curcumin (CUR-CGNPs) has also found to process a significantly improved bone density and prevented bone loss activities through inhibiting osteoclast (OC) formation and osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages(345).
Phloridzin, another antioxidant found mainly in apple has found to process anti high blood glucose levels and improve lipids metabolism in animal model(346). According to the Unité des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, in aging induced change of sex hormones related of that lead to inflammatory and oxidant condition, phloridzin prevented imflammatory condition in ovariectomy-induced bone loss, and improved bone resorption(347).
Pectin, is a structural heteropolysaccharide found mainly in the in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. Pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple may be an important phytochemical in increased osteoprotective effects mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms(349), such as in increased mineralized matrix formation of osteoblastic cells through production of high amount of galactan in vitro, according to joint study lead by Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup(348).