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Wednesday, 16 December 2015

Most Common Diseases of elder: The Clinical Trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders: Osteoporosis: The Marvelous Supplements , according herbal and TCM medicine specialist

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).


                               The Treatment

B. In herbal  and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
5. The Supplements for osteoporosis
5.1. Phyto-estrogens(women only)
Phyto-estrogens found in plants weaker types of estrogen hormone with estrogenic or/and antiestrogenic effects in comparison to natural estrogen hormones(447). In perimenopausal or postmenopausal womenwomen intake of phytoestrogen is found to associate to vasomotor symptoms relief(448). Genistein, one of the best known phytoestrogen exhibited anti-resorptive effects on bone metabolism, anti bone loss by enhanced osteoblastic production of osteoprotegerin (OPG)(450).
Dr. Malinova M. said" phytoetrogens and vitamin D administered in a dose-dependent manner effectively prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women and reduces the incidence of fractures"(449). In fact, the effects of phytochemical in reduced risk of osteoporosis may also be depended on genetic influence.  According to the Nanchang University, the effects of dietary phytoestrogens on bone mineral density (BMD)postmenopausal women may be varied with ERα gene(451).

5.2. Glucosamine
Glucosamine, a compound of the simple sugar glucose and the amino acid glutamine, is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans(194,452), a major component of joint cartilage(195,453). As a Collagen peptides, glucosamine has produced a favorable effect on bone health and cartilage tissue(454).
According to the study by the Queen's University, oral administration of glucosamine at 200-mg/kg dose for 6 months showed a significant preventive effects on mineral content and some biomechanical properties(455) of which improve bone and joint disorder. Dr. Anastassiades T and the research team said" N-butyryl glucosamine (GlcNBu) can be positioned between nutriceuticals and pharmaceuticals for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis"(455).
In senescence-accelerated OXYS rats as model of osteoporosis, glucosamine alendronate (GA) alone or/and icombination with dihydroquercetin (DHQ) increased BMD and the level of osteocalcin, according to the study by Institute of Cytology & Genetics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences(456)
 In deed, treatment of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, collagen hydrolysate, or nutrients, such as antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids showed to prevent cartilage degeneration in patient with bone and joint disorder , according to study(195, 457).

5.3. Chondroitin
Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), found in cartilage around joints in the body is a chemical composed of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid).
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and functional component in proteoglycans of cartilaginous tissues may be a nutraceutical ingredient commonly utilized in fighting against arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and sometimes osteoporosis(458), probably through activation of Cathepsin K (CatK), a major lysosomal collagenase produced by osteoclasts, in bone resorption.and promoted efficient collagen degradation(459). Given all the positive information of Cathepisn K in bone health, Dr. Li Z and the research team said" targeting cathepsin K complex formation would be an effective and specific treatment for diseases with excessive bone resorption such as osteoporosis'(460).
Dr. Watanabe R and Okazaki R. said" Cathepsin K,.....markedly reduced bone resorption with a transient reduction in bone formation, thus resulted in a robust increase in both trabecular and cortical BMD in osteoporotics"(461).

Arthritis Is Curable
You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
By addressing the Underlying Causes through Clinical Trials and Studies


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References
(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) Osteoporosis(Life extension)
(4) Hormone and bone by Francisco Bandeira1, Marise Lazaretti-Castro2, John P. Bilezikian3
(5) Growth hormone and bone by Ohlsson C1, Bengtsson BA, Isaksson OG, Andreassen TT, Slootweg MC.(PubMed)
(6) GH and bone--experimental and clinical studies by Isaksson OG1, Ohlsson C, Bengtsson BA, Johannsson G.(PubMed)
(447) Phytoestrogens in Functional Foods edited by Fatih Yildiz, 2005, 336 pages, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL by Alison M Duncan( American Society for Clinical Nutrition)
(448) Phytoestrogens for menopausal vasomotor symptoms by Lethaby A1, Marjoribanks J, Kronenberg F, Roberts H, Eden J, Brown J.(PubMed)
(449) [PHYTOESTROGENS AND VITAMIN D FOR BONE HEALTH IN MENOPAUSAL TRANSITION].[Article in Bulgarian] by Malinova M.(PubMed)
(450) Phytoestrogen genistein stimulates the production of osteoprotegerin by human trabecular osteoblasts by Viereck V1, Gründker C, Blaschke S, Siggelkow H, Emons G, Hofbauer LC.(PubMed)
(451) Association between dietary phytoestrogen intake and bone mineral density varied with estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms in southern Chinese postmenopausal women by Luo D1, Liu Y, Zhou Y, Chen Z, Yang L, Liu Y, Xu Q, Xu H, Kuang H, Huang Q, He M, Peng W.(PubMed)
(452)
(453)
(454)[Bone and Nutrition. Functional foods for bone and cartilage tissues : Evidence for the action of collagen peptides].[Article in Japanese]by Kimira Y1, Mano H.(PubMed)
(455) N-acylated glucosamines for bone and joint disorders: effects of N-butyryl glucosamine on ovariectomized rat bone by Anastassiades T1, Rees-Milton K, Xiao H, Yang X, Willett T, Grynpas M.(PubMed)
(456) Efficacy of glucosamine alendronate alone & in combination with dihydroquercetin for treatment of osteoporosisin animal model by Muraleva NA1, Ofitserov EN, Tikhonov VP, Kolosova NG.(PubMed)
(457)
(458) Medical Gains of Chondroitin Sulfate upon Fucosylation by Pomin VH1.(PubMed)
(459) Chondroitin sulfate promotes activation of cathepsin K by Lemaire PA1, Huang L2, Zhuo Y2, Lu J3, Bahnck C1, Stachel SJ4, Carroll SS1, Duong LT5.(PubMed)(460) Collagenase activity of cathepsin K depends on complex formation with chondroitin sulfate by Li Z1, Hou WS, Escalante-Torres CR, Gelb BD, Bromme D.(PubMed)
(461) [Reducing bone resorption by cathepsin K inhibitor and treatment of osteoporosis].[Article in Japanese]by Watanabe R1, Okazaki R.(PubMed)