Wednesday, 23 December 2015

Most Common Disease of elder: The Clinical trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis: The Complications

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).
The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).

             The Complications

The Most common complications for people with
1. Gout
The forming of sodium urate crystals forming in and around your joints, due to high levels of urate can result of inflammatory arthritis or gout(88)(89).
2. Chondrocalcinosis
The forming of calcium pyrophosphate crystals to form in the cartilage, due to  osteoarthritis (OA) can cause calcification(90)(91).

Other may also experience complications of 
1. Rapid, complete breakdown of cartilage due to  upregulating of syndecan-4  is found to associated to patient with osteoarthritis(92)(93). Inhibition of syndecan-4 may be used for the treatment of cartilage damage in osteoarthritis(93).

2. Osteonecrosis
Osteonecrosis, the result of bone death due to collapse of the architecture of bone, as the result of a number of conditions ultimately leading to an impairment of blood supply to the bone tissue(94), According to the study by Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, there is a relationship of subchondral bone collapse caused by osteoporosis, but not osteonecrosis, initiated the osteoarthritic change of the affected knee(96).
Probable bone formation was clear in the patients with osteonecrosis, and cartilage regeneration in the patients with osteoarthritis after injecting autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells, hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma and calcium chloride(95)

3. Stress fractures
The common complication found in 0.3%-0.8% of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases as a result of multifactorial overuse injuries(97), but Stress fractures of the tibia secondary to tibial deformities are rare from patient with osteoarthritis((98)(99).

4.  Bleeding inside the joint(100). 
5. Infection in the joint(101)(102) 
6. Osteoarthritis can cause deterioration or rupture of the tendons and ligaments around the joint of which can induce risk of instability(103).

Arthritis Is Curable
You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
By addressing the Underlying Causes through Clinical Trials and Studies

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(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review by Pereira D1, Peleteiro B, Araújo J, Branco J, Santos RA, Ramos E.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis by Waller B1, Ogonowska-Slodownik A2, Vitor M3, Lambeck J4, Daly D5, Kujala UM6, Heinonen A7.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with kneeosteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang C1, Xie Y2, Luo X3, Ji Q3, Lu C3, He C4, Wang P3.(PubMed)
(6) Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis by Farid R1, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR.(PubMed)
(7) Functional ability, mobility, and pain before and after knee replacement in patients aged 75 and older: a cross-sectional study by Limnell K1, Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Jäntti P, Puolakka T, Jylhä M.(PubMed)
(8) The symptoms of OA and the genesis of pain by David J. Hunter, MBBS PhD,1,2 Jason J. McDougall, BSc PhD,3 and Francis J. Keefe4(PubMed)
(88) Are joints affected by gout also affected by osteoarthritis? by Edward Roddy, Weiya Zhang, and Michael Doherty(PMC)
(89) Are There Other Options Besides Medications for Gout and Osteoarthritis? by Julie Chen, M.D.
(90) The relationship between chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis in Saudi Arabia by Al-Arfaj AS1.(PubMed)
(91) Analysis of the association between chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis: a community based study by Sanmarti R1, Kanterewicz E, Pladevall M, Pañella D, Tarradellas JB, Gomez JM.(PubMed)
(92) SDC4: OA joint effort by Michael J. Haas, Senior Writer(SciBX)
(93) Syndecan-4 regulates ADAMTS-5 activation and cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis by Echtermeyer F1, Bertrand J, Dreier R, Meinecke I, Neugebauer K, Fuerst M, Lee YJ, Song YW, Herzog C, Theilmeier G, Pap T.(PubMed)
(94) Definition of bone necrosis by the pathologis by Cristina Fondi and Alessandro Franchi(PMC)
(95) Regeneration of human bones in hip osteonecrosis and human cartilage in knee osteoarthritis with autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells: a case series by Pak J1.(PubMed)
(96) The Relationship between Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Report of 2 Cases with SuspectedOsteonecrosis by Horikawa A1, Miyakoshi N2, Shimada Y2, Kodama H1.(PubMed)
(97) Proximal tibial stress fracture associated with mild osteoarthritis of the knee: case report. by Curković M1, Kovac K, Curković B, Babić-Naglić D, Potocki K.(PubMed)
(98) Management of knee osteoarthritis presenting with tibial stress fractures by Ng YC1, Sathappan SS, Wong HP.(PubMed)
(99) Proximal tibial stress fractures associated with primary degenerative knee osteoarthritis by Sourlas I1, Papachristou G, Pilichou A, Giannoudis PV, Efstathopoulos N, Nikolaou VS.(PubMed)
(100) Osteoarthritis In-Depth Report(The NewYork time)
(101) Risk of revision for infection in primary total hip and knee arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with osteoarthritis: a prospective, population-based study on 108,786 hip and knee joint arthroplasties from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register by Schrama JC1, Espehaug B, Hallan G, Engesaeter LB, Furnes O, Havelin LI, Fevang BT.(PubMed)
(102) Incidence of infectious complications in hip and knee arthroplasties in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritispatients.[Article in English, Portuguese] by da Cunha BM1, de Oliveira SB, Santos-Neto L.(PubMed)
(103) The Basics of Osteoarthritis(WebMD)

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