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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatment in Conventional Medicine Perspective
C. Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, progressive condition induced symptoms of olfactory deficit, sleep problems such as rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, constipation and the more recently described male erectile dysfunction(456), due to the interruption of frontal-subcortical loops facilitated cognition and parallel the motor loop(457).
Contrary to common perception, many non-motor symptoms (NMS) also link to early onset of PD(459) and some may even predate the diagnosis of PD based on motor signs(458).
C.1. Treatments of Dementia Associated with Parkinson's Disease
Treatments are depending to the degree of functional and cognitive impairment, according to the suggestion of the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)(480) and Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology(488)
1. Treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
a. Tricyclic antidepressants nortriptyline(459) and desipramine(460) for the treatment of depression or depressive symptoms
b. Macrogol for the treatment of constipation(461)
c. Methylphenidate(462) and modafinil(463) for the treatment of fatigue
d. Amantadine for the treatment of pathological gambling(464)(465)
e. Donepezil(466)(467), galantamine(468), and memantine(470) for the treatment of dementia
f. Quetiapine(471)(472) for the treatment of psychosis
g. Fludrocortisone(473)(474) and domperidone(475)(476) for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension
h. Sildenafil(477)(478) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction
i. Ipratropium bromide spray(479)for the treatment of sialorrhea
j. Levodopa/carbidopa controlled release (CR)(481), pergolide(482), eszopiclone(483)(484), melatonin(485) 3 to 5 mg and melatonin 50 mg for the treatment of insomnia
k. Modafinil(486)(487) for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness
C.2. Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
According to the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Review of Treatments for Parkinson's Disease (PD) was first published in 2002 and updated in 2005 to cover clinical trial data up to January 2004 with the treatments on motor symptoms of PD(489), including
a. Piribedil(490)(491), pramipexole(491), pramipexole extended release(492)(493), ropinirole(491), rotigotine(494), cabergoline(491), and pergolide(491) were all efficacious as symptomatic monotherapy
b. Ropinirole prolonged release(495) was likely efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct therapy
c. Prevention/delay of motor fluctuations, pramipexole(496) and cabergoline(497) were efficacious
d. Prevention/delay of dyskinesia, pramipexole(498), ropinirole(499), ropinirole prolonged release(500), and cabergoline(501) were all efficacious, whereas pergolide(502) was likely efficacious.
e. Duodenal infusion of levodopa(502)(503) was likely efficacious in the treatment of motor complications, but the practice implication is investigational.
f. Rasagiline conclusions were revised to efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct(504), and as treatment for motor fluctuations(505).
g. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation(506), bilateral globus pallidus stimulation(507), and unilateral pallidotomy(508) were updated to efficacious for motor complications.
h. Physical therapy(509)was revised to likely efficacious as symptomatic adjunct therapy.
C.3. Side effects
Most conventional medicine induced certain side effects. If you are taken any of these medicine, please consult your doctor. You also can search them from respectable sources. Here are some examples.
a, Macrogol(Allergic reaction (rash, itching, shortness of breath) changes in your body's fluid or electrolyte levels (swollenankles, other swelling, fatigue, dehydration, increased thirst with headache), Abdominal pain. Mild diarrhoea. Nausea. Vomiting. Swollen abdomen)(510).
b. Methylphenidate (stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite; vision problems, dizziness, mild headache; sweating, mild skin rash; numbness, tingling, or cold feeling in your hands or feet; nervous feeling, sleep problems (insomnia); or. weight loss)(511).
c. Modafinil (Black, tarry stools, blurred vision or other vision changes, chest pain, chills or fever, clumsiness or unsteadiness, confusion, dizziness or fainting, increased thirst and urination, mental depression, problems with memory, rapidly changing moods, shortness of breath, sore throat, trembling or shaking, trouble in urinating, uncontrolled movements of the face, mouth, or tongue unusual bleeding or bruising and unusual tiredness or weakness)(512).
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((457) Frontal-subcortical circuitry and behavior by Bonelli RM1, Cummings JL.(PubMed)
(459) Early Parkinson's disease and non-motor issues by Chaudhuri KR1, Naidu Y.(PubMed)
(460) Comparison of desipramine and cognitive/behavioral therapy in the treatment of elderly outpatients with mild-to-moderate depression by Thompson LW1, Coon DW, Gallagher-Thompson D, Sommer BR, Koin D.(PubMed)
(461) Efficacy and complications of polyethylene glycols for treatment of constipation in children: a meta-analysis by Chen SL1, Cai SR, Deng L, Zhang XH, Luo TD, Peng JJ, Xu JB, Li WF, Chen CQ, Ma JP, He YL.(PubMed)
(462) Effects of methylphenidate on fatigue and depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial by Kerr CW1, Drake J, Milch RA, Brazeau DA, Skretny JA, Brazeau GA, Donnelly JP.(PubMed)
(463) Pathological gambling in Parkinson disease is reduced by amantadine by Thomas A1, Bonanni L, Gambi F, Di Iorio A, Onofrj M.(PubMed)
(464) Amantadine in the treatment of pathological gambling: a case report by Pettorruso M1, Martinotti G, Di Nicola M, Onofrj M, Di Giannantonio M, Conte G, Janiri L.(PubMed)
(465) Pathological gambling in Parkinson disease is reduced by amantadine by Thomas A1, Bonanni L, Gambi F, Di Iorio A, Onofrj M.(PubMed)
(466) Long-term efficacy of donepezil for relapse of visual hallucinations in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. by Ukai K1, Fujishiro H, Iritani S, Ozaki N.(PubMed)
(467) Donepezil for dementia due to Alzheimer's disease by Birks J1, Harvey RJ.(PubMed)
(468) The effect of galantamine on brain atrophy rate in subjects with mild cognitive impairment is modified by apolipoprotein E genotype: post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial by7 Prins ND1, van der Flier WA1, Knol DL2, Fox NC3, Brashear HR4, Nye JS5, Barkhof F6, Scheltens P7.(PubMed)
(469) Galantamine versus risperidone treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with probable dementia: an open randomized trial by Freund-Levi Y1, Jedenius E2, Tysen-Bäckström AC3, Lärksäter M3, Wahlund LO4, Eriksdotter M4.(PubMed)
(470) Treatment effect of memantine on survival in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia: a prospective study by Stubendorff K1, Larsson V2, Ballard C3, Minthon L2, Aarsland D4, Londos E2.(PubMed)
(471) Comparison of metabolic effects of aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone after 12 weeks of treatment in first treated episode of psychosis by Pérez-Iglesias R1, Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz V2, Martínez García O2, Amado JA3, Garcia-Unzueta MT4, Ayesa-Arriola R2, Suarez-Pinilla P5, Tabares-Seisdedos R6,Crespo-Facorro B2.(PubMed)
(472) Efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in the treatment of early psychosis: a randomized, double-blind 52-week comparison by McEvoy JP1, Lieberman JA, Perkins DO, Hamer RM, Gu H, Lazarus A, Sweitzer D, Olexy C, Weiden P, Strakowski SD.(PubMed)
(473) Nonpharmacological treatment, fludrocortisone, and domperidone for orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease by Schoffer KL1, Henderson RD, O'Maley K, O'Sullivan JD.(PubMed)
(474) [Reflex syncope and syncope secondary to orthostatic hypotension].[Article in German] by Simonis G1, Gerk U, Pabst F, Machetanz J, Spitzer SG, Schellong S.(PubMed)
(475) Domperidone in the management of orthostatic hypotension by Montastruc JL, Chamontin B, Senard JM, Rascol A.(PubMed)
(476) [Arterial hypertension with orthostatic hypotension caused by dysregulation of the baroreflex. Correction with domperidone and verapamil].[Article in French]by Chamontin B, Villeneuve A, Berlan M, Montastruc JL, Salvador M.(PubMed)
(477) Effect of sildenafil on platelet function and platelet cGMP of patients with erectile dysfunction. by Akand M1, Gencer E, Yaman O, Erişgen G, Tekin D, Ozdiler E.(PubMed)
(478) Sublingual sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: faster onset of action with less dose. by Deveci S1, Peşkircioğlu L, Aygün C, Tekin MI, Dirim A, Ozkardeş H.(PubMed)
(479) Ipratropium bromide spray as treatment for sialorrhea in Parkinson's disease. by Thomsen TR1, Galpern WR, Asante A, Arenovich T, Fox SH.(PubMed)
(480) The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease by Seppi K1, Weintraub D, Coelho M, Perez-Lloret S, Fox SH, Katzenschlager R, Hametner EM, Poewe W, Rascol O, Goetz CG, Sampaio C.(PubMed)
(481) Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease by Stocchi F1, Barbato L, Nordera G, Berardelli A, Ruggieri S.(PubMed)
(482) Daytime sleepiness and alertness in patients with Parkinson disease by Stevens S1, Cormella CL, Stepanski EJ.(PubMed)
(483) The impact of eszopiclone on sleep and cognition in patients with schizophrenia and insomnia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial by Tek C1, Palmese LB2, Krystal AD3, Srihari VH2, DeGeorge PC4, Reutenauer EL2, Guloksuz S2.(PubMed)
(484) A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of eszopiclone 2 mg on sleep/wake function in older adults with primary and comorbid insomnia by Ancoli-Israel S1, Krystal AD, McCall WV, Schaefer K, Wilson A, Claus R, Rubens R, Roth T.(PubMed)
(485) Melatonin in elderly patients with insomnia. A systematic review by Olde Rikkert MG1, Rigaud AS.(PubMed)
(486) Modafinil in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness by Valentino RM1, Foldvary-Schaefer N.(PubMed)
(487) Modafinil : a review of its use in excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and shift work sleep disorder by Keating GM1, Raffin MJ.(PubMed)
(488) Practice Parameter: Treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease
Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology by T. A.Zesiewicz, MD, FAAN, K. L. Sullivan, MSPH, I. Arnulf, MD, K. R. Chaudhuri, MD, J. C.Morgan, MD, PhD, G. S. Gronseth, MD, FAAN, J. Miyasaki, MD, MEd, FAAN, D. J. Iverson, MD, FAAN and W. J. Weiner, MD(Neurology)
(502) Interaction of pergolide with central dopaminergic receptors. by Goldstein M, Lieberman A, Lew JY, Asano T, Rosenfeld MR, Makman MH.(PubMed)
(503) Medical management of levodopa-associated motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease by Jankovic J1, Stacy M.(PubMed)
(504) [Rasagiline in monotherapy in patients with early stages of Parkinson's disease and in combined and adjunct therapy to levodopa with moderate and advanced stages].[Article in Spanish] by Pagonabarraga J1, Rodríguez-Oroz MC.(PubMed)
(505) Rasagiline: a review of its use in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. by McCormack PL1.(PubMed)
(506) Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: evidence for effectiveness and limitations from 12 years' experience. by Movement Disorder Group, Chan AY1, Yeung JH2, Mok VC1, Ip VH1, Wong A1, Kuo SH3, Chan DT4, Zhu XL4, Wong E4, Lau CK4, Wong RK5, Tang V6, Lau C1,Poon WS4.(PubMed)
(507) Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus internus by Krause M1, Fogel W, Heck A, Hacke W, Bonsanto M, Trenkwalder C, Tronnier V.(PubMed)
(508) Bilateral pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson's disease induced corticobulbar syndrome and psychic akinesia avoidable by globus pallidus lesion combined with contralateral stimulation by Merello M1, Starkstein S, Nouzeilles MI, Kuzis G, Leiguarda R.(PubMed)
(509) Maintenance ECT in the treatment of PD. Therapy improves psychotic symptoms, physical function by Shulman RB1.(PubMed)
(510) Medicines & treatments centre(WebMD)
(511) Ritalin Side Effects Center(WebMD)
(512) Modafinil Side Effects(Drug.com)