Friday, 16 October 2015

The 2nd edition of The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia under The Microscope of Conventional Medicine - The Phytochemicals Rosemarinol and Gingerole

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.

Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.

Prevention and Management
C. Phytochemicals Against Dementia
C.1. Rosemarinol
Rosemarinol is a phytochemical monophenols, found in essential oil of labiate herbs like rosemary and in variety of other plants.
1. Retard autoxidation
Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid showed a significantly retarded autoxidation, in the fish oil undergoes microencapsulation process(307).

2. Anti-inflammatory effects
The extract of rosemary leaves from supercritical fluid extraction showed a high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation, through suppression of the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO)(308) and maintaining oxidative stability(313)

3. Antioxidant defences
Rosemary extract enhanced antioxidant defences and improved antioxidant status in aged rats in attenuation of lipid peroxidation and ROS levels through its antioxidant enzyme activity(309). The extract also showed to exhibit its antioxidant effect against the proliferation of irregular cell growth such as human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells(312).

C.2. Gingerole
Gingerole, is also known as gingerol, a phytochemical of flavonoids (polyphenols) found in fresh ginger. and in variety of other plants. The herb has been used for treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, motion sickness, rheumatoid arthritis, relieve migraine, etc. in folk medicine.
1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
Chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Rosc.(Zingiberaceae) showed to attenuate oxidative stress, through its scavenging, and inhibiting superoxide and hydroxyl radicals of ROS species(310), via nephroprotective effect on mediation of oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and renal dysfunction(311).

2. Dementia
Ginger(70% aqueous/methanolic extract of dried ginger (Zo.Cr)) besides induced spasmolytic activity in stomach fundus in treating dementia in South Asia, it also inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in improvement of cognitive performance patients with dementia(315) and vascular dementia(VaD)(315), probably through cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in reduced production of amyloid-β(316).

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(307) Chemical stabilization of oils rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage by Pop F1.(PubMed)
(308) Anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves by Kuo CF1, Su JD, Chiu CH, Peng CC, Chang CH, Sung TY, Huang SH, Lee WC, Chyau CC.(PubMed)
(309) Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats by Posadas SJ1, Caz V, Largo C, De la Gándara B, Matallanas B, Reglero G, De Miguel E.(PubMed)
(310) Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol by Dugasani S1, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN.(PubMed)
(311) Gingerol fraction from Zingiber officinale protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. by Rodrigues FA1, Prata MM, Oliveira IC, Alves NT, Freitas RE, Monteiro HS, Silva JA, Vieira PC, Viana DA, Libório AB, Havt A.(PubMed)
(312) Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis by Cheung S1, Tai J.(PubMed)
(313) Effects of "nitrendipine" on nitrous oxide anesthesia, tolerance, and physical dependence by Dolin SJ1, Little HJ.(PubMed)
(314) Muscarinic, Ca(++) antagonist and specific butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried ginger extract might explain its use in dementia by Ghayur MN1, Gilani AH, Ahmed T, Khalid A, Nawaz SA, Agbedahunsi JM, Choudhary MI, Houghton PJ.(PubMed)
(315) [Effect of AChE and BuChE inhibition by rivastigmin in a group of old-old elderly patients with cerebrovascular impairment (SIVD type)].[Article in Italian] by Servello A1, Andreozzi P, Bechini F, De Angelis R, Pontecorvo ML, Vulcano A, Cerra E, Vigliotta MT, Artini M, Selan L, Ettorre E.(PubMed)
(316) Selective acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors reduce amyloid-β ex vivo activation of peripheral chemo-cytokines from Alzheimer's disease subjects: exploring the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by Reale M, Di Nicola M, Velluto L, D'Angelo C, Costantini E, Lahiri DK, Kamal MA, Yu QS, Greig NH1.(PubMed)

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