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Abstract Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Prevention and Management
C. Phytochemicals Against Dementia
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, is a rhizomatousherbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native totropical South Asia, used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders(336). Curcumin, a phytochemical found abundant in the plant, in acidic solutions (pH <7.4) turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions turns bright red.
1. Alzheimer's disease and Anti-inflammatory agent
a. Alzheimer's disease
Increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory consumption such as curcumin may reduce risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) caused by amyloid beta (Abeta) accumulation(338) through reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology(339). The phytochemical is also found to disaggregate Abeta in preventing fibril and oligomer formation(338). According to YamagataUniversity, its synthesized curcumin analogues used pharmateutically in treatment of amyloid β aggregation also experience notable result(337). In vitro and animal models, curcumin was effective, in lowering oxidative damage, cognitive deficits, synaptic marker loss, and amyloid depositio in prevented onset of Alzheimer's disease(340).
b. Anti-inflammatory agent
Curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent(341), in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and neurodegenerative diseases,, decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cells signalling in response to inflammation(342)(343), in patients of ear infection and Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer'sdisease(344)(345), respectively.
Curcumin also consisting anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activitie(346), in arthritis, strongly inhibited collagenase and stromely in expression at micromolar concentrations(346); in diabetes, scavenged free radicals and reduced LDL oxidation and cellular oxidative stress(347); in cancers, reduced accumulation of ROS causes of abnormal cells(348), through apoptosis(349); in neurodegenerative diseases, exerted autophagy-lysosomal activities, through removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and cells with specific function(350) and regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)(351)(352).
G.6. Gallic acid
Gallic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Phenolic acids, found abundantly in tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy, etc.
1. Cytotoxic and antioxidative activities(367)
Gallic acid showed to exert its antioxidant in inhibition of free radical effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), a stable free-radical molecules(354), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (SO) radicals(353)(355), probably through its chelation of ferrous ions(355). In bacteria, the phytochemical extract containing gallic acid also exhibited a strong anti microbial effect(357)(358) from species of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea(356); In cancers, gallic acid induced tumor cytotoxic effects(357), through antiproliferative induced apoptosis(359), cell cycle arrest(362) and suppression of cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis(360), such as mitochondrial dysfunction(361). Neurologically. gallic acid reduced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction causes of the pathology of secondary neuronal damage in induction of dementia(363); its anti-aggregating effect also inhibited α-synuclein (α-syn) causes of many neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies(364).
2. Anti inflammatory activity(367)
Gallic acid showed to inhibit inflammation(366) through its scavenging of superoxide anions, inhibition of myeloperoxidase release and activity via mediation of inflammatory process(365).
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(336) Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger specie by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, , S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto, M.Y. Yong(Science direct)
(337) Effects of repeated androgen treatments on metabolism and nuclear binding of androgen in the infant murine submandibular gland by Katsukawa H1, Ninomiya Y, Funakoshi M.(PubMed)
(338) Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo by Yang F1, Lim GP, Begum AN, Ubeda OJ, Simmons MR, Ambegaokar SS, Chen PP, Kayed R, Glabe CG, Frautschy SA, Cole GM.(PubMed)
(339) Phenolic anti-inflammatory antioxidant reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology by Frautschy SA1, Hu W, Kim P, Miller SA, Chu T, Harris-White ME, Cole GM.(PubMed)
(340) Structure activity relationship study of curcumin analogues toward the amyloid-beta aggregation inhibitor by Endo H1, Nikaido Y1, Nakadate M1, Ise S1, Konno H2.(PubMed)
(341) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation by Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG.(PubMed)
(342) Curcumin inhibits imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation by inhibiting IL-1beta and IL-6 production in mice by Sun J1, Zhao Y, Hu J.(PubMed)
(343) Relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin in neurodegenerative diseases and depression by Tizabi Y1, Hurley LL2, Qualls Z3, Akinfiresoye L4.(PubMed)
(344) Neuroprotective and neurorescue effects of a novel polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) in the neuronal cell culture and animal model: implications for Alzheimer's disease by Ray B1, Bisht S, Maitra A, Maitra A, Lahiri DK.(PubMed)
(345) Neuronal uptake and neuroprotective effect of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles on the human SK-N-SH cell line by Doggui S1, Sahni JK, Arseneault M, Dao L, Ramassamy C.(PubMed)
(346) The antioxidants curcumin and quercetin inhibit inflammatory processes associated with arthritis by Jackson JK1, Higo T, Hunter WL, Burt HM.(PubMed)
(347) In vitro antidiabetic and inhibitory potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L) rhizome against cellular and LDL oxidation and angiotensin converting enzyme by Lekshmi PC1, Arimboor R1, Nisha VM1, Menon AN1, Raghu KG1.(PubMed)
(348) Water-soluble antioxidants improve the antioxidant and anticancer activity of low concentrations of curcumin in human leukemia cells by Chen J1, Wanming D, Zhang D, Liu Q, Kang, J.(PubMed)
(349) ROS-dependent prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) up-regulation and ceramide generation are the prime signaling events associated with curcumin-induced autophagic cell death in human malignant glioma by Thayyullathil F1, Rahman A1, Pallichankandy S1, Patel M1, Galadari S2.(PubMed)
(350) Autophagy as an essential cellular antioxidant pathway in neurodegenerative disease. by Giordano S1, Darley-Usmar V1, Zhang J2.(PubMed)
(351) Dietary curcumin ameliorates aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction through the AMPK/uncoupling protein 2 pathway by Pu Y1, Zhang H, Wang P, Zhao Y, Li Q, Wei X, Cui Y, Sun J, Shang Q, Liu D, Zhu Z.(PubMed)
(352) Curcumin nanoparticles attenuate neurochemical and neurobehavioral deficits in experimental model of Huntington's disease by Sandhir R1, Yadav A, Mehrotra A, Sunkaria A, Singh A, Sharma S.(PubMed)
(353) Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 activity by 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose in murine macrophage cells. by Lee SJ1, Lee IS, Mar W.(353)
(354) 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activity of Rhizophora mangle (L.) bar by Janet Calero Sánchez, Roberto Faure García, and Ma. Teresa Mitjavila Cors1(PubMed)
(355) In vitro antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging evaluation of active metabolite constituents of Newbouldia laevis ethanolic leaf extract by Josiah Bitrus Habu and Bartholomew Okechukwu Ibeh(PMC)
(356) The antimicrobial, mechanical, physical and structural properties of chitosan-gallic acid films Xiuxiu Sun Wayne State University Zhe Wang School of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, China Hoda Kadouh Wayne State University Kequan Zhou Wayne State University, firstname.lastname@example.org(Digital Common)
(357) Antibacterial activity and mode of action of ferulic and gallic acids against pathogenic bacteria by Celeste Simões
(358) Berry phenolics: antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens by Nohynek LJ1, Alakomi HL, Kähkönen MP, Heinonen M, Helander IM, Oksman-Caldentey KM, Puupponen-Pimiä RH.(PubMed)
(359) Gallic Acid Induces the Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo via the Regulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways by Cheng-zhen Liang,1 Xin Zhang,1 Hao Li,1 Yi-qing Tao,1 Li-jiang Tao,1 Zi-ru Yang,1 Xiao-peng Zhou,1 Zhong-li Shi,2 andHui-min Tao(PMC)
(360) Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells by BING ZHAO and MENGCAI HU(PMC)
(361) Gallic acid suppresses cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human glioma cell by Yong Lu,1,2 Feng Jiang,2 Hao Jiang,2 Kalina Wu,1 Xuguang Zheng,2 Yizhong Cai,3 Mark Katakowski,2 Michael Chopp,2,4 and Shing-Shun Tony To1(PMC)
(362) Antitumor effect of beta-elemene in non-small-cell lung cancer cells is mediated via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. by Wang G1, Li X, Huang F, Zhao J, Ding H, Cunningham C, Coad JE, Flynn DC, Reed E, Li QQ.(PubMed)
(363) Puerarin attenuates cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia by Jing Zhang,1,2 Wenshi Guo,3 Buxian Tian,3 Menghan Sun,1 Hui Li,2 Lina Zhou,2 Xueping Liu4(PMC)
(364) The many faces of α-synuclein: from structure and toxicity to therapeutic target by Hilal A. Lashuel,1 Cassia R. Overk,2 Abid Oueslati,1 and Eliezer Masliah2,3(PMC)
(367) Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from the Mediterranean brown seaweed Cystoseira sedoides by Mhadhebi L1, Laroche-Clary A, Robert J, Bouraoui A.(PubMed)