Saturday, 24 October 2015

The 2nd edition of The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia under The Microscope of Conventional Medicine: Treatments of Multi-infarct dementia

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.

Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.

E. Multi-infarct dementia
Also known as vascular dementia, is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease in older adults between ages of 60 and 75(571), caused by different mechanisms all resulting in vascular lesions in the brain(572)(573) with prevalence of major depression, depressed mood/anhedonia, and subjective and neurovegetative symptoms of depression(574).

Treatments of Multi-infarct dementia
There are no treatments which can reverse the damage to the brain caused by small strokes(575), but the goal of the treatment is to control the symptoms and reduce the risk factors to prevent future strokes(576) by prescribed medicine to make the blood thinner to reduce the risk blood clot causes of future stroke.
E.1. Medication
1. Plavix
Plavix tablets is pescription-only medicine with function of keeping blood platelets from sticking together and forming clots(577) to prevent blood clotted causes of future stroke(579). In some cases, it is used conjunction with aspirin(578).

b. Side effects are not limit to
The most common side effects of Plavix (occurring in more than 2 percent of people and more often in the group taking Plavix) include:
b.1. Constipation
b.2. Diarrhea
b.3. Dizziness
b.4. Headache
b.5. Heartburn
b.6. Joint or muscle pain
b.7. Nausea and vomiting
b.8. Etc.
A sudden choking feeling, sore throat, difficulty swallowing and itchy mouth had been reported in patient taking clopidogrel 75 mg combined with 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid once daily, and metoprolol tartrate 50 mg twice daily(580)

2. Antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine)
a. Antipsychotic drugs effectively treat psychosis caused by a variety of conditions including dementia(581). Psychotic symptoms are classified as either positive or negative. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, bizarre or disorganized behavior(582). Negative symptoms include anhedonia, flattened affect, apathy, and social withdrawal(583).

b. Side effects are not limit to
In most cases, adverse effects are usually dose dependent and influenced by patient characteristics, including age and gender(584).
b.1. Constipation,
b.2. Dry mouth and
b.3. Blurred vision
b.4. Sleepiness and slowness
b.5. Weight gain
b.6. Stiffness and shakines
b.7. Hormone change
b.8. Diabetes
b.9. Etc.

3. Serotonin-affecting drugs (trazodone, buspirone, or fluoxetine)
a. Precursor amino acids (PAA)of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine showed clinical and psychologic improvement with conflict results(585)
b. Side effects are not limit to
b.1. Diarrhea
b.2. Drowsiness
b.3. Nausea,
b.4. Vomiting and agitation(585)

4. Anti anticonvulsant
Anti anticonvulsant, clonazepam has shown to control logorrhea, hyperactivity, agitation, intrusiveness, and impulsive violence and to promote cooperation in patient with multi-infarct dementia, according to East Carolina University School of Medicine(586).

b. Side effects are not limit to
b.1. Dizziness
b.2. Drowsiness
b.3. Unsteadiness
b.4. Nausea
b.5. Vomiting
b.6. Skin rashes
b.7. Etc.

5. Rivastigmine, is a cholinergic agent used for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia(587)
a. On cognitive function, rivastigmine, at dosages approved for therapeutic use showed to improve all behavioral symptoms in 2 forms of VaD, MID and sVaD(590), except delusions, according to University of Trieste(588).

The medicine, unfortunately, has been reported to induce side effects that lead to withdrawal in a significant proportion of patients(589).

b. Side effects are not limit to
b.1. Nausea and vomiting
b.2. Loss of appetite
b.3. Weight loss
b.4. Diarrhea
b.4. Dizziness
b.5. Drowsiness
b.6. Trembling
b.7. Etc.

E.2. Surgery
In case of sensory problems, surgery can be helpful.
F. Subdural hematoma is the accumulation of blood beneath the outer coveri of the brain resulted from the rupture of blood vessel(545)(546). Subdural hemorrhages may cause an increase intracranial pressure(545), induecd compression and damage to delicate brain tissue(547). Acute subdural hematoma has a high mortality rate(546). The diseases are most prevalent among elderly individuals(544).

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(544) Chronic subdural haematoma: modern management and emerging therapies by Kolias AG1, Chari A1, Santarius T1, Hutchinson PJ1.(PubMed)
(545) Acute subdural hematoma from bridging vein rupture: a potential mechanism for growth by Miller JD1, Nader R.(PubMed)
(546) Surgical management of traumatic acute subdural hematoma in adults: a review by Karibe H1, Hayashi T, Hirano T, Kameyama M, Nakagawa A, Tominaga T.(PubMed)
(547) Brain herniation induced by drainage of subdural hematoma in spontaneous intracranial hypotension by Chotai S1, Kim JH, Kim JH, Kwon TH.(PubMed)
(548) The influence of coagulopathy on outcome after traumatic subdural hematoma: a retrospective single-center analysis of 319 patients by Lemcke J1, Al-Zain F, von der Brelie C, Ebenau M, Meier(PubMed) 
(549)Acute Subdural Hematoma. Author: Alex Koyfman, MD; Chief Editor: Rick Kulkarni, MD more(Medscape))..
(550)[Analysis of prognostic factors for patients with traumatic acute subdural hematomas treated by surgery].[Article in Chinese]by Song C1, Ren X1, Zhao B1, Fu H1, Lin S2, Zhang Y1.(PubMed)
(551) Management and outcome of patients with acute traumatic subdural hematomas and pre-injury oral anticoagulation therapy by Senft C1, Schuster T, Forster MT, Seifert V, Gerlach R.(PubMed)
(552) Case report: treatment of subdural hematoma in the emergency department utilizing the Subdural Evacuating Port System by Asfora WT, Klapper HB.(PubMed)
(553) Subdural Hematoma Treatment & Management. Author: Richard J Meagher, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD more..(Medscape)
(554) Chronic subdural hematoma. Surgery or mannitol treatment by Gjerris F, Schmidt K.(PubMed)
(555) Mannitol in acute traumatic brain injury by Schrot RJ1, Muizelaar JP.(PubMed)
(556) Effect of neuroprotective N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists on increased intracranial pressure: studies in the rat acute subdural hematoma model by Kuroda Y1, Fujisawa H, Strebel S, Graham DI, Bullock R.(PubMed)
(557) Methylprednisolone(Wikipedia)
(558) Effects of intracarotid injection of methylprednisolone on cellular oedema after osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier in rats by Kozler P1, Pokorný J.(PubMed)
(560) Anticonvulsants for preventing seizures in patients with chronic subdural haematoma. by Ratilal BO1, Pappamikail L, Costa J, Sampaio C.(PubMed)
(561) Low incidence of seizures in patients with chronic subdural haematoma. by Ohno K1, Maehara T, Ichimura K, Suzuki R, Hirakawa K, Monma S.(PubMed)
(562) Epilepsy in chronic subdural haematoma by Rubin G1, Rappaport ZH.(PubMed)
(563) Rifampicin(Wikipedia)
(564) Use of drains versus no drains after burr-hole evacuation of chronic subdural haematoma: a randomised controlled trial by Santarius T1, Kirkpatrick PJ, Ganesan D, Chia HL, Jalloh I, Smielewski P, Richards HK, Marcus H, Parker RA, Price SJ, Kirollos RW, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ(PubMed)
(565) Acute subdural hemorrhage associated with rifampicin-induced thrombocytopenia. by Kang SY1, Choi JC, Kang JH, Lee JS.(PubMed)
(566) A case of acute and severe thrombocytopenia due to readministration of rifampicin by Mori M1, Izawa K, Fujikawa T, Uenami T, Sugano T, Kagami S, Namba Y, Yano Y, Yoneda T, Kitada S, Kimura H, Yamaguchi T, Yokota S, Maekura R.(PubMed)
(567) An Unreported Clindamycin Adverse Reaction: Wrist Monoarthritis(IJPR)
(568) Craniotomy(Wikipedia)
(569) Acute subdural hemorrhage associated with rifampicin-induced thrombocytopenia by Kang SY1, Choi JC, Kang JH, Lee JS.(PubMed)
(570) Chronic subdural haematoma treated by craniotomy, durectomy, outer membranectomy and subgaleal suction drainage. Personal experience in 39 patients by Mohamed EE1.(PubMed)
(571) NINDS Multi-Infarct Dementia Information Page(NIH)
(572) Vascular dementia: different forms of vessel disorders contribute to the development of dementia in the elderly brain. by Thal DR1, Grinberg LT, Attems J.(PubMed)
(573) [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions].[Article in French]by Gold G1, Kövari E.(PubMed)
(574) Depressive Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease and Multi-infarct Dementiaby William E. Reichman, MD.(Sagejournasl)
(575) The reversible dementias: do they reverse by Clarfield AM1.(PubMed)
(576) Vascular cognitive impairment: epidemiology, subtypes, diagnosis and management. by Black SE1.(PubMed)
(577) Clopidogrel to prevent blood clots (Grepid, Plavix)(Patient)
(578) Aspirin plus clopidogrel as secondary prevention after stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang Q1, Wang C, Zheng M, Li Y, Li J, Zhang L, Shang X, Yan C.(PubMed)
(579) [Antiplatelet agents in secondary prevention of stroke].[Article in French]by De Gautard G, Perrier A.(PubMed)
(580) Bleeding complication with dual antiplatelet therapy: spontaneous uvula hematoma by Nicholas G. Kounis, MD PhD and Periklis Davlouros, MD PhD(PMC)
(581) The long-term effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotics in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease by Lopez OL, Becker JT, Chang YF, Sweet RA, Aizenstein H, Snitz B, Saxton J, McDade E, Kamboh MI, DeKosky ST, Reynolds CF 3rd, Klunk WE.(PubMed)
(582) Threat/control-override symptoms and emotional reactions to positive symptoms as correlates of aggressive behavior in psychotic patients by Nederlof AF1, Muris P, Hovens JE.(PubMed)
(583) Two subdomains of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders: established and confirmed in two large cohorts by Liemburg E1, Castelein S, Stewart R, van der Gaag M, Aleman A, Knegtering H; Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Investigators.(PubMed)
(584) Adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics : differential risk and clinical implications. by Haddad PM1, Sharma SG.(PubMed)
(585) Neurotransmitter precursor amino acids in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia and Alzheimer's disease by Meyer JS, Welch KM, Deshmukh VD, Perez FI, Jacob RH, Haufrect DB, Mathew NT, Morrell RM.(PubMed)
(586) Clonazepam treatment of multi-infarct dementia. by Smeraski PJ1.(PubMed)
(587) From high doses of oral rivastigmine to transdermal rivastigmine patches: user experience and satisfaction among caregivers of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.[Article in English, Spanish]by Reñé R1, Ricart J2, Hernández B2; researchers in the Experience study.(PubMed)
(588) Different responses to rivastigmine in subcortical vascular dementia and multi-infarct dementia. by Moretti R1, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Pizzolato G.(PubMed)
(589) Rivastigmine for vascular cognitive impairment by Birks J1, McGuinness B, Craig D.(PubMed)

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