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of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatments In conventional Medicine
Depending to the causes of disease, most medication are to control the symptoms
A. Alzheimer's disease and Diminished quality of acetylcholine
A.1. Treatments of mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease and Diminished quality of acetylcholine
1. Cholinesterase inhibitors
a. Cholinesterase inhibitors are the primary treatment, including tacrine(409)(410)(Cognex), donepezil(411)(412)(Aricept), rivastigmine(407)(408)(Exelon), and galantamine (Reminyl) for reductions in acetylcholine and acetyltransferase activity(406) induced cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD).
According to Dr. Trinh NH and the research team at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there was no difference in efficacy among variouscholinesterase inhibitors(413). Persistent drug treatment had a positive impact on AD progression in advanced disease(414).
In the article, Cholinesterase Inhibitors, posted in the Minister of health, the inhibitors, improved the effectiveness of acetylcholine either by increasing the levels in the brain or strengthening the way nerve cells response in communication between nerve cells, may temporarily promote or stabilize the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease(415).
b. Side effects are not limit to(416)(417)
b.5. Abdominal pain
b.6. Loss of appetite
b.8. Weight loss
A.2. Treatment of moderate and Severe Alzheimer's disease and Diminished quality of acetylcholine
1. Namenda®(418)(419)(memantine), an N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist(420) are the most common medication used to treat moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease, through it's therapeutic action in uncompetitive binding to the NMDAR for preservance of the physiological function of the receptor(421). But, according to other in 2 out of 3 six month studies, memantine showed only a small beneficial effect but not in patients with vascular dementia(422).
2. Side effects are not limit to(423)(424)
3. Other medications
a. Anticonvulsants are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of seizures(425), chronic neuropathic pain(426), and the clinical syndrome of Alzheimer's disease(427) by suppressing the rapid and excessive firing of neurons(428). Some researchers suggested that seizure pathophysiology may relate to increased amyloid beta-peptide production(429), causing cytoskeletal dysfunction, cerebrovascular changes, neurotransmitter dysfunction or combinations(430). By modification of these pathophysiological pathways, anti-epileptic drugs such as sodium valproate and lacosamide may be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(431)
b. Side effects are not limit to(432)(433)
b.6. Skin rashes
a. A sedative or tranquilizer is a drug that calms patients(434), reduced irritability and excitement by modulating signals within the central nervous system for neuroprotection(436). The medication are highly addictive. Benzodiazepine, one of the sedative has shown to reduce Aβ plaques through its activation on Aβ-related synaptic and behavioral impairment in AD(437).
b. Side effects are not limit to(438)
b.1. Stomach upset
b.2. Blurred vision
b.4. Impaired coordination
b.6. Memory loss
b.8. Risk of fractures and falls(435)
a. Antidepressant is a type of psychiatric medication used to treat depression(443), including mood disorder(439), dysthymia(440)(441) and anxiety disorders(442)(443). According to Purpan-Casselardit Hospital, 34.8% of patients with AD are prescribed antidepressant foe daily use in AD(444).
b. Side effects are not limit to(445)
b.1. Dry mouth,
b.2. Blurred vision
b.6. Sexual problems
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(410) Tacrine for Alzheimer's disease. by Qizilbash N1, Birks J, López-Arrieta J, Lewington S, Szeto, S. (PubMed)
(411) Donepezil for mild cognitive impairment by Birks J1, Flicker L.(PubMed)
(412) Donepezil for dementia due to Alzheimer's disease by Birks J1, Harvey RJ.(PubMed)
(413) Efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional impairment in Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis by Trinh NH1, Hoblyn J, Mohanty S, Yaffe K.(PubMed)
(414) Persistent treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine slows clinical progression of Alzheimer disease by Rountree SD1, Chan W, Pavlik VN, Darby EJ, Siddiqui S, Doody RS.(PubMed)
(416) Therapeutic Goals (ChE-Is)?(Alsonline)
(417) Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor(Wikipedia)
(418) Evaluating high-dose rivastigmine patch in severe Alzheimer's disease: analyses with concomitant memantine usage as a factor by Grossberg GT, Farlow MR, Meng X, Velting DM1.(PubMed)
(419) A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled withdrawal trial comparing memantine and antipsychotics for the long-term treatment of function and neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with Alzheimer's disease (MAIN-AD). by Ballard C1, Thomas A2, Gerry S3, Yu LM4, Aarsland D5, Merritt C6, Corbett A7, Davison C2, Sharma N2, Khan Z7, Creese B7, Loughlin P6, Bannister C6, Burns A8, Win SN9, Walker Z10; MAIN-AD investigators.(PubMed)
(420) Memantine is a clinically well tolerated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist--a review of preclinical data by Parsons CG1, Danysz W, Quack G.(PubMed)
(421) N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and memantine treatment for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease by Olivares D1, Deshpande VK, Shi Y, Lahiri DK, Greig NH, Rogers JT, Huang X.(PubMed)
(422) Memantine for dementia by A Areosa Sastre, F Sherriff, R McShane(Cochran bibrary)
(423) memantine - oral, Namenda (cont.)(Medicinenet.comhttp://www.medicinenet.com/memantine-oral/page2.htm)
(425) Use of anticonvulsants as prophylaxis for seizures in patients on clozapine by Caetano D1.(PubMed)
(436) Signalling pathways for transactivation by dexmedetomidine of epidermal growth factor receptors in astrocytes and its paracrine effect on neurons by Li B1, Du T, Li H, Gu L, Zhang H, Huang J, Hertz L, Peng L.(PubMed)
(437) Effects of synaptic modulation on beta-amyloid, synaptophysin, and memory performance in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice by Tampellini D1, Capetillo-Zarate E, Dumont M, Huang Z, Yu F, Lin MT, Gouras GK.(PubMed)
(439) Antidepressant-associated mood elevations in bipolar II disorder compared with bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Bond DJ1, Noronha MM, Kauer-Sant'Anna M, Lam RW, Yatham LN.(PubMed)
(440) Orphan comparisons and indirect meta-analysis: a case study on antidepressant efficacy in dysthymia comparing tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors by using general linear models by Ballesteros J1.(PubMed)
(441) An open treatment trial of duloxetine in elderly patients with dysthymic disorder by Kerner N1, D'Antonio K2, Pelton GH1, Salcedo E3, Ferrar J3, Roose SP1, Devanand D1.(PubMed)
(442) Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis by Cuijpers P1, Sijbrandij M, Koole SL, Andersson G, Beekman AT, Reynolds CF 3rd.(PubMed)
(443) The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons by Cuijpers P1, Sijbrandij M, Koole SL, Andersson G, Beekman AT, Reynolds CF 3rd.(PubMed)
(444) Antidepressant use in Alzheimer's disease patients: results of the REAL.FR cohort by Arbus C1, Gardette V, Bui E, Cantet C, Andrieu S, Nourhashémi F, Schmitt L, Vellas B; REAL.FR Group.(PubMed)