Tuesday, 13 October 2015

The 2nd edition of The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia under The Microscope of Conventional Medicine - The Antioxidant enzymes

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.

Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.

Prevention and Management
B. The Antioxidants
B.1. Antioxidant enzymes

Antioxidant enzymes, chemical substances found in plants, protect the body from damage of free radicals by terminating the chain reactions through removing free radical intermediates and inhibiting oxidation reactions.
1. Catalase
Catalase is an enzyme, found in most living organisms exposed to oxygen for action of converse hydrogen peroxide (free radicals)(226) to water and oxygen. The antioxidants showed to protect cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide in pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related diseases(222) inducted early stages of aggregation of the amyloid peptides(225), including neurodegeneration(224) such as Alzheimer's diseas(223).

2. Glutathione peroxidase
The function of glutathione peroxidase is to protect the organism from oxidative damage and induced neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease(228) by removing lipid hydroperoxides(227), causes of oxidation of lipid cell membranes. probably through its major cellular peroxide scavenging enzyme(228) and maintaining the oxidative phosphorylation system and protecting mitochondria(229) and oxidative injury and amyloid toxicity of cortical neurons(230).

3. Glutathione reductase
Glutathione reductase, an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate Gglutathione (GSH) levels at 24h(233), and reduced pair of sulfur atoms glutathione to a organosulfur compound form of antioxidant (consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds) may play an important role in prevention of damage of important cellular components induced neurodegenerative diseases such as PD(231)(232), caused by free radicalsand peroxides. probably through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties(231)

4. Super oxide dismutase (both Cu-Zn and Mn)
Super oxide dismutase is an important antioxidant and immune defence(224) in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, depending on the metal cofactor such as both Cu-Zn and Mn(225), probably through the attenuation of superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs)(225) in enhanced protection of biochemical/molecular/neurobiological function(226).

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(222) Human catalase, its polymorphisms, regulation and changes of its activity in different diseases. by Kodydková J1, Vávrová L1, Kocík M1, Žák A1.(PubMed)
(223) Systemic oxidative stress and conversion to dementia of elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment. by Cervellati C1, Romani A1, Seripa D2, Cremonini E1, Bosi C3, Magon S3, Bergamini CM1, Valacchi G4, Pilotto A5, Zuliani G3.(PubMed)
(224) Neurodegeneration through oxidative stress: monitoring hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in primary cells from the subventricular zone of BALB/c mice using field-effect transistors. by Koppenhöfer D1, Kettenbaum F1, Susloparova A1, Law JK1, Vu XT1, Schwab T1, Schäfer KH1, Ingebrandt S2.(PubMed)
(225) Hydrogen peroxide is generated during the very early stages of aggregation of the amyloid peptides implicated in Alzheimer disease and familial British dementia. byTabner BJ1, El-Agnaf OM, Turnbull S, German MJ, Paleologou KE, Hayashi Y, Cooper LJ, Fullwood NJ, Allsop D.(PubMed)
(226) Development of a new catalase activity assay for biological samples using optical CUPRAC sensor. by Bekdeşer B1, Özyürek M1, Güçlü K2, Alkan FÜ3, Apak R1.(PubMed)
(227) Dysregulated iron metabolism in the choroid plexus in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. by Ariza J1, Steward C2, Rueckert F2, Widdison M2, Coffman R2, Afjei A2, Noctor SC3, Hagerman R4, Hagerman P5, Martínez-Cerdeño V6.(PubMed)
(228) Delineating the role of glutathione peroxidase 4 in protecting cells against lipid hydroperoxide damage and in Alzheimer's disease byYoo MH1, Gu X, Xu XM, Kim JY, Carlson BA, Patterson AD, Cai H, Gladyshev VN, Hatfield DL.(PubMed)
(229) Biological effects of mutant ceruloplasmin on hepcidin-mediated internalization of ferroportin. by Kono S1, Yoshida K, Tomosugi N, Terada T, Hamaya Y, Kanaoka S, Miyajima H.(PubMed)
(230) Ceruloplasmin-ferroportin system of iron traffic in vertebrates. by Musci G1, Polticelli F1, Bonaccorsi di Patti MC1.(PubMed)
(231) Ceruloplasmin: an acute phase reactant that scavenges oxygen-derived free radicals. by Goldstein IM, Kaplan HB, Edelson HS, Weissmann G.(PubMed)
(232) Protective effect of hesperidin in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in aged mice by Antunes MS1, Goes AT1, Boeira SP1, Prigol M1, Jesse CR2.(PubMed)

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