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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Prevention and Management
B. Antioxidants and Dementia
B.3. Common Free Radical Scavengers
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group with a unique function in breaking down molecules into smaller units for releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine(263). As a cellular antioxidant, it protected against diseases associated with oxidative stress, through mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels and activation of heme oxygenase(264) and reverted to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, through antioxidant redox cycle in inhibition of the effects of mutagens when oxidized(265). A significant reduction of levels ofbilirubin, has shown to associate to patients with Alzheimer's disease(AD)(266).
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurred in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria. The antioxidant has been under intense scrutiny studies for finding of their potential in modulated chronic disease risk and prevention of vitamin A deficiency(267). Plasma levels of HDL and carotenoids have shown to lower in patients with dementia related vascular disorders(268) and Alzheimer's disease(AD)(269).
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound is classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
Beta-Carotene is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A(270) showed to inhibit cancer cell in experiment(271)(272). Its anti oxidative effects has shown to cover the main pathways for formation, transformation, and decay of free radicals(273), through its relation to the antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties(274). According to Yale University, the decreased non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood, including β-carotene showed a significant oxidative damage in the process of neurodegeneration(275).
Flavonoid also known as Vitamin P and citrinare, is a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. The antioxidant has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. Vitamin C and flavonoids combination has shown to expressed wound healing in animal model(276).
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants in inhibition of cell growth, differentiation and development, and overexpressed in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc., probably through cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis(277). Intake of antioxidant flavonoids is associated to the reduced risk of incident dementia(278) and mild cognitive impairment(279).
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy microbial(281) and cancerous cells(282)(283). Over produced NO, showed to induce inflammation(280). Flavonoids processed an ability in inhibited NO production of peroxynitrite(284) found to induce mitochondrial dysfunction associated with PD progression(285) and cause of inappropriate damage to blood and tissues(284).
4. Vitamin A, C, E
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurred in the form retinol is best known for its function in maintaining a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system(286). The vitamin also acts as an the major peroxyl radical scavenger role in biological lipid phases such as membranes or low-density lipoproteins (LDL)(291)(288), including incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with respiratory failure(290), in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation(287), and enhancement of the productions of insulin pancreas(289).
b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, presencted in aqueous compartments (e.g. cytosol, plasma, and other body fluids)(292) plays an important role in synthesis of collagen, carnitine, catecholamine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine(293). As an water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carried in blood, operated in many parts of body. By recycling vitamin E, vitamin C also helps to fight against forming of free radicals(294). By enhancing the immune system(295)(296), it promotes against the microbial and viral(298) and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation(297).
Vitamin C also is a free radical scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation(299).
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds, including both tocopherols and tocotrienols(300), discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. The vitamin not only is important in protecting muscle weakness(300), repairing damage tissues(302) caused by oxidation(303), and promoting blood clotting in healing wound(302), etc., it also, moved into the fatty medium to prevent lipid
peroxidation(301), inhibited free radicals chain reactions by curtailing them before they can start(304) and prevented or delayed cognitive decline, in both ageing population of and mild cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)(306), according to R & D Human Nutrition and Health(305).
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(263) New insights in bilirubin metabolism and their clinical implications b Sticova E1, Jirsa M.(PubMed)
(264) Bilirubin chemistry and metabolism; harmful and protective aspects by Vítek L1, Ostrow JD.(PubMed)
(265) Direct Antioxidant Properties of Bilirubin and Biliverdin. Is there a Role for Biliverdin Reductase? by Jansen T1, Daiber A.(PubMed)
(266) Decreased plasma antioxidants in patients with Alzheimer's disease. by Kim TS1, Pae CU, Yoon SJ, Jang WY, Lee NJ, Kim JJ, Lee SJ, Lee C, Paik IH, Lee CU.(PubMed)
(267) Absorption, metabolism, and transport of carotenoids. by Parker RS1.(PubMed)
(268) Plasma levels of HDL and carotenoids are lower in dementia patients with vascular comorbidities. by Dias IH1, Polidori MC2, Li L1, Weber D3, Stahl W4, Nelles G5, Grune T3, Griffiths HR1.(PubMed)
(269) Retinoids as potential targets for Alzheimer's disease by Sodhi RK1, Singh N2.(PubMed)
(270) The importance of beta-carotene as a source of vitamin A with special regard to pregnant and breastfeeding women by Strobel M1, Tinz J, Biesalski HK.(PubMed)
(271) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group.[No authors listed](PubMed)
(272) Lipid-soluble antioxidants: beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels in breast and gynecologic cancers by Palan PR1, Goldberg GL, Basu J, Runowicz CD, Romney SL(PubMed)
(273) Beta-carotene as an interceptor of free radicals. by Ozhogina OA1, Kasaikina OT.(PubMed)
(274) Evidence for a lack of reactivity of carotenoid addition radicals towards oxygen: a laser flash photolysis study of the reactions of carotenoids with acylperoxyl radicals in polar and non-polar solvents by El-Agamey A1, McGarvey DJ.(PubMed)
(275) Oxidative stress in blood in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis by Schrag M1, Mueller C, Zabel M, Crofton A, Kirsch WM, Ghribi O, Squitti R, Perry G.(PubMed)
(276) Influence of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) flavone on dermal wound healing in rats by Gupta A1, Kumar R, Pal K, Singh V, Banerjee PK, Sawhney RC.(PubMed)
(277) Flavonoids identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis induce apoptosis by ROS generation and caspase activation on human fibrosarcoma cells by Zhang J1, Park HS, Kim JA, Hong GE, Nagappan A, Park KI, Kim GS.(PubMed)
(278) Intake of flavonoids and risk of dementia.by Commenges D1, Scotet V, Renaud S, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Barberger-Gateau P, Dartigues JF.(PubMed)
(279) Flavonoids and dementia: an update by Orhan IE, Daglia M, Nabavi SF, Loizzo MR, Sobarzo-Sánchez E, Nabavi SM1.(PubMed)
(280) Nitric oxide in immunity and inflammation by Coleman JW1.(PubMed)
(281) Inducible defense mechanism against nitric oxide in Candida albicans by Ullmann BD1, Myers H, Chiranand W, Lazzell AL, Zhao Q, Vega LA, Lopez-Ribot JL, Gardner PR, Gustin MC.(PubMed)
(282) RADICAL CAUSES OF CANCER by SP Hussain
(283) The role of nitric oxide in cancer by Xu W1, Liu LZ, Loizidou M, Ahmed M, Charles IG.(PubMed)
(284) Green tea extract and its polyphenols markedly inhibit luminol-dependent chemiluminescence activated by peroxynitrite or SIN-1 by Van Dyke K1, McConnell P, Marquardt L.(PubMed)
(285) Integrating glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction with implications for Parkinson's disease: a dynamic model by Vali S1, Mythri RB, Jagatha B, Padiadpu J, Ramanujan KS, Andersen JK, Gorin F, Bharath MM.(PubMed)
(286) Vitamin A/retinol and maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells by Khillan JS1.(PubMed)
(287) In vivo changes in plasma coenzyme Q10, carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol levels in children after computer tomography by Halm BM1, Lai JF2, Morrison CM2, Pagano I2, Custer LJ2, Cooney RV3, Franke AA4.(PubMed)
(288) Nonalcoholic red wine extract and quercetin inhibit LDL oxidation without affecting plasma antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid concentrations by Chopra M1, Fitzsimons PE, Strain JJ, Thurnham DI, Howard AN.(PubMed)
(289) Vitamin A deficiency causes hyperglycemia and loss of pancreatic β-cell mass by Trasino SE1, Benoit YD1, Gudas LJ2.(PubMed)
(290) Effects of early inhaled nitric oxide therapy and vitamin A supplementation on the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature newborns with respiratory failure by Gadhia MM1, Cutter GR2, Abman SH3, Kinsella JP4(PubMed)
(291) Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids by Sies H1, Stahl W, Sundquist AR.(PubMed)
(292) Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids by Sies H1, Stahl W, Sundquist AR.(PubMed)
(293) Functional and physiological role of vitamin C transporters by Bürzle M1, Hediger MA.(PubMed)
(294) Ascorbic acid spares alpha-tocopherol and prevents lipid peroxidation in cultured H4IIE liver cells by Huang J1, May JM.(PubMed)
(295) Effect of vitamin C supplements on cell-mediated immunity in old people. by Kennes B, Dumont I, Brohee D, Hubert C, Neve P.(PubMed)
(296) Essential role of vitamin C and zinc in child immunity and health by Maggini S1, Wenzlaff S, Hornig D.(PubMed)
(297) Ascorbic acid: its role in immune system and chronic inflammation diseases by Sorice A, Guerriero E, Capone F, Colonna G, Castello G, Costantini S1.(PubMed)
(298) Multifunctional PLGA particles containing poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles and ascorbic acid with simultaneous antioxidative and prolonged antimicrobial activity by Stevanović M1, Bračko I, Milenković M, Filipović N, Nunić J, Filipič M, Uskoković DP.(PubMed)
(299) The prevention of air pollution damage to plants by the use of vitamin C sprays. by FREEBAIRN HT.(PubMed)
(300) Vitamin E: function and metabolism by Brigelius-Flohé R1, Traber MG.(PubMed)
(301) Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives by Herrera E1, Barbas C.(PubMed)
(302) Polymeric films loaded with vitamin E and aloe vera for topical application in the treatment of burn wounds by Pereira GG1, Guterres SS1, Balducci AG2, Colombo P2, Sonvico F3.(PubMed)
(303) Function of vitamin E in physical exercise: a review by Gerster H1.(PubMed)
(304) Oxidative stress and damage induced by abnormal free radical reactions and IgA nephropathy by Chen JX1, Zhou JF, Shen HC.(PubMed)
(305) Effects of vitamin E on cognitive performance during ageing and in Alzheimer's disease by La Fata G1, Weber P2, Mohajeri MH3.(PubMed)
(306) Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Coriolus versicolor in rat brain: Relevance to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. by Trovato A1, Siracusa R2, Di Paola R2, Scuto M1, Fronte V1, Koverech G1, Luca M1, Serra A3, Toscano MA1, Petralia A3, Cuzzocrea S2, Calabrese V4.(PubMed)