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Thursday, 15 October 2015

The 2nd edition of The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia under The Microscope of Conventional Medicine - The Common Free Radical Scavengers

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Abstract

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.

Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.


Prevention and Management

B. Antioxidants and Dementia
B.3. Common Free Radical Scavengers
1. Bilirubin
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group with a unique function in breaking down molecules into smaller units for releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine(263). As a cellular antioxidant, it protected against diseases associated with oxidative stress, through mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels and activation of heme oxygenase(264) and reverted to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, through antioxidant redox cycle in inhibition of the effects of mutagens when oxidized(265). A significant reduction of levels ofbilirubin, has shown to associate to patients with Alzheimer's disease(AD)(266).

2. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurred in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria. The antioxidant has been under intense scrutiny studies for finding of their potential in modulated chronic disease risk and prevention of vitamin A deficiency(267). Plasma levels of HDL and carotenoids have shown to lower in patients with dementia related vascular disorders(268) and Alzheimer's disease(AD)(269).

Beta-Carotene, an organic compound is classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
Beta-Carotene is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A(270) showed to inhibit cancer cell in experiment(271)(272). Its anti oxidative effects has shown to cover the main pathways for formation, transformation, and decay of free radicals(273), through its relation to the antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties(274). According to Yale University, the decreased non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood, including β-carotene showed a significant oxidative damage in the process of neurodegeneration(275).

3. Flavonoids
Flavonoid also known as Vitamin P and citrinare, is a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. The antioxidant has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. Vitamin C and flavonoids combination has shown to expressed wound healing in animal model(276).
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants in inhibition of cell growth, differentiation and development, and overexpressed in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc., probably through cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis(277). Intake of antioxidant flavonoids is associated to the reduced risk of incident dementia(278) and mild cognitive impairment(279).

Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy microbial(281) and cancerous cells(282)(283). Over produced NO, showed to induce inflammation(280). Flavonoids processed an ability in inhibited NO production of peroxynitrite(284) found to induce mitochondrial dysfunction associated with PD progression(285) and cause of inappropriate damage to blood and tissues(284).

4. Vitamin A, C, E
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurred in the form retinol is best known for its function in maintaining a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system(286). The vitamin also acts as an the major peroxyl radical scavenger role in biological lipid phases such as membranes or low-density lipoproteins (LDL)(291)(288), including incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with respiratory failure(290), in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation(287), and enhancement of the productions of insulin pancreas(289).

b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, presencted in aqueous compartments (e.g. cytosol, plasma, and other body fluids)(292) plays an important role in synthesis of collagen, carnitine, catecholamine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine(293). As an water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carried in blood, operated in many parts of body. By recycling vitamin E, vitamin C also helps to fight against forming of free radicals(294). By enhancing the immune system(295)(296), it promotes against the microbial and viral(298) and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation(297).
Vitamin C also is a free radical scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation(299).

c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds, including both tocopherols and tocotrienols(300), discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. The vitamin not only is important in protecting muscle weakness(300), repairing damage tissues(302) caused by oxidation(303), and promoting blood clotting in healing wound(302), etc., it also, moved into the fatty medium to prevent lipid
peroxidation(301), inhibited free radicals chain reactions by curtailing them before they can start(304) and prevented or delayed cognitive decline, in both ageing population of and mild cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)(306), according to R & D Human Nutrition and Health(305).

5. Etc.

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References
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(264) Bilirubin chemistry and metabolism; harmful and protective aspects by Vítek L1, Ostrow JD.(PubMed)
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(266) Decreased plasma antioxidants in patients with Alzheimer's disease. by Kim TS1, Pae CU, Yoon SJ, Jang WY, Lee NJ, Kim JJ, Lee SJ, Lee C, Paik IH, Lee CU.(PubMed)
(267) Absorption, metabolism, and transport of carotenoids. by Parker RS1.(PubMed)
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