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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatments In Herbal Medicine prospective
D. Huperzine A, a chemical made from the plant Huperzia serrata has been studied for its effect on patient of dementia with conflict results.
a. Cognitive effects
In induced Alzheimer's disease animal study, Huperzine A showed a significant effect in inhibited acetylcholinesterase, derived from forebrain, hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum(635), through neuron protective effects and enhanced glutamatergic functions(635). In mild to moderate vasculardementia (VaD) patients, the medicine also improved the cognitive function with serious adverse events(636). According to Beijing University of Chinese Medicinealthough Huperzine A showed a beneficial effects on improvement of cognitive function, daily living activity in global clinical assessment in participants with Alzheimer's disease, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the poor methodological quality of the included trials(638). But according to University of California,, in a phase II trial of huperzine A, regardless to doses, huperzine A did not demonstrate cognitive effect in patients with mild to moderate AD(637).
b. Inhibition of amyloid plaque burden and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ)
Huperzine A, showed to reduce in Aβ levels and Aβ burden in AD brain, through activation of Wnt signaling(regulate cell-to-cell interactions) and targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in various components in contribution to disease(639) through modulation of amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic pathways(640), and reduction of iron in the brain(641) via a multi-target mechanism(642).
c. Mild to moderate vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease
In patients with mild to moderate vascular dementia (VaD), Huperzine A significantly improved the cognitive function in mini-mental state examination (MMSE), clinical dementia rating (CDR), and activities of daily living (ADL) scores(643)(644).
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huperzine A also showed improvement in memory function and cognitive enhancement at a dose of 0.4 mg using MMSE, MQ, ADAS-COG, and ADL tests(645); against organophosphate (OP) intoxication and reduction of glutamate-induced cell death(646). According to Georgetown University Hospital, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of Huperzine A may be useful as a disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD)(647).
Due to data supporting its use are limited by weak study design, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-Worcester/Manchester suggested that randomized, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to establish the role of huperzine A in the treatment of AD(648).
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(635) Huperzine A, a potential therapeutic agent for dementia, reduces neuronal cell death caused by glutamate by Ved HS1, Koenig ML, Dave JR, Doctor BP.(PubMed)
(636) Treatment with Huperzine A improves cognition in vascular dementia patients by Xu ZQ1, Liang XM, Juan-Wu, Zhang YF, Zhu CX, Jiang XJ.(PubMed)
(637) A phase II trial of huperzine A in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease by Rafii MS1, Walsh S, Little JT, Behan K, Reynolds B, Ward C, Jin S, Thomas R, Aisen PS; Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study.(PubMed)
(638) Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials by Yang G1, Wang Y, Tian J, Liu JP.(PubMed)
(639) Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model by Wang CY1, Zheng W, Wang T, Xie JW, Wang SL, Zhao BL, Teng WP, Wang ZY.(PubMed)
(640) Huperzine A alleviates synaptic deficits and modulates amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic pathways in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice by Wang Y1, Tang XC, Zhang HY.(PubMed)
(641) Reducing iron in the brain: a novel pharmacologic mechanism of huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by Huang XT1, Qian ZM2, He X3, Gong Q3, Wu KC3, Jiang LR4, Lu LN3, Zhu ZJ3, Zhang HY5, Yung WH3, Ke Y6.(PubMed)
(642) Neuroprotective effects of huperzine A. A natural cholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by Wang R1, Tang XC.(PubMed)
(643) Treatment with Huperzine A improves cognition in vascular dementia patients by Xu ZQ1, Liang XM, Juan-Wu, Zhang YF, Zhu CX, Jiang XJ.(PubMed)
(644) Huperzine a in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: a meta-analysis. by Xing SH1, Zhu CX2, Zhang R1, An L1.(PubMed)
(645) Huperzine a as potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease: an assessment on chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical studies by Ha GT1, Wong RK, Zhang Y.(PubMed)
(646) The psychopharmacology of huperzine A: an alkaloid with cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective properties of interest in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by Zangara A1.(PubMed)
(647) An update on huperzine A as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease by Little JT1, Walsh S, Aisen PS.(PubMed)
(648) Role of huperzine a in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by Desilets AR1, Gickas JJ, Dunican KC.(PubMed)