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of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Prevention and Management
Cinnamic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Hydroxycinnamic acids, found abundantly in cinnamon, aloe. etc.
1. Antioxidant effects
Mitochondrial oxidative damage is associated with a number of clinical disorders. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (TPP-OH), including cinnamic acid exhibited its antioxidant activity in protection of cells against H(2)O(2) and linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress(371)(368). The phytochemical also showed a promising free radical scavenging(369) and anti-inflammatory(375), antidiabetic(374), antimicrobial(371), anticancer(377)(378), lipid-lowering(379)(380), and cardiovascular-disease-lowering activity(369)(370)(380). Neurologically, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders(372)(375)(376), such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases(373)(370)
2, Anti-platelet aggregation
Novel ligustrazinyloxy-cinnamic acid derivatives showed to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro(380), and its p-amidinophenyl esters also exerted antithrombotic effects as irreversible inhibitors of the vitamin-K dependent enzymes(382) which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(381).
Tyrosol is a phytochemical compound, a derivative of phenethyl alcohol, belongings to the group of tyrosol esters, found mostly in olive oil. The phytochemical is best known for its antioxidants in protecting the forming of free radicals and lipid oxidation causes of heart disease(383).
1. Antioxidant effects
Tyrosol attenuated the elevated cellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species, NO scavenging(386) and lipid peroxidation, against bacterial invasion(386), DNA damage induced by dioxin toxicity(384) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)(385) probably through vary antioxidant-dependent mechanisms. Neurologically, tyrosol showed to exhibit its protective effect against dopaminergic neuronal induced degradation(387) and neurotoxicity(388).
2. Alzheimer Disease
In Alzheimer Disease, tyrosol has shown to protect neuro-cells damage against amyloid-β-Induced toxicity, probably through anti inflammatory pathways(389). In women, the phytochemical also exerted its antioxidative activity(391), in removing harmful compounds from the body, reducing risk of bacterial respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections(392), suppressing LDL(392) causes of the development of cardiovascular disease; and preventing oxidation induced diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders(392), cancer(392), osteoporosis(393)(394),Alzheimer disease(390)(395)(396)(397).
Silymarin is a phytochemical in the class of Lignans (phytoestrogens), found abundantly in artichokes, milk thistle, etc.
Silymarin showed to exert the powerful antioxidant activity into protection of cells against arsenical cytotoxicity(399), via reduced lipid hydroperoxide (LHP) formation with no RNS induction and hepoprotective(400)(401) in ntitubercular and alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity assays in rats(400)
2. Neuroprotective effect
In impaired cognitive and neurochemical function of diabetic patients and streptozotocin induced diabetic rodents, silibinin promoted DNA protection and reduced oxidative stress in a brain specific area, in part via the activation of the HO system(402); In mouse mode with Parkinson's disease(404), treatment of the phytochemical attenuated dopamine levels induced neuro cells damage causes of apoptosis(403) via reduced brain myeloperoxidase activity associated with AD risk(405) and inflammatory signalling cells(404).
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(370) Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant by Rao PV1, Gan SH2.(PubMed)
(371) Cinnamon polyphenols attenuate the hydrogen peroxide-induced down regulation of S100β secretion by regulating sirtuin 1 in C6 rat glioma cells by Qin B1, Panickar KS2, Anderson RA3.(PubMed)
(372) Cinnamon polyphenols regulate S100β, sirtuins, and neuroactive proteins in rat C6 glioma cells by Qin B1, Panickar KS2, Anderson RA3.(PubMed)
(373) Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes by Anderson RA1, Qin B2, Canini F3, Poulet L4, Roussel AM5.(PubMed)
(374) Cinnamon increases liver glycogen in an animal model of insulin resistance by Couturier K1, Qin B, Batandier C, Awada M, Hininger-Favier I, Canini F, Leverve X, Roussel AM, Anderson RA(PubMed)
(375) Inhibition of neuroinflammation by cinnamon and its main components by Ho SC1, Chang KS, Chang PW.(PubMed)
(376) Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders by Jana A1, Modi KK, Roy A, Anderson JA, van Breemen RB, Pahan K.(PubMed)
(377) The effect of aqueous cinnamon extract on the apoptotic process in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells by Assadollahi V1, Parivar K, Roudbari NH, Khalatbary AR, Motamedi M, Ezatpour B, Dashti GR.(PubMed)
(378) Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFkappaB and AP1. by Kwon HK1, Hwang JS, So JS, Lee CG, Sahoo A, Ryu JH, Jeon WK, Ko BS, Im CR, Lee SH, Park ZY, Im SH.(PubMed)
(379) Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits by Javed I1, Faisal I, Rahman Z, Khan MZ, Muhammad F, Aslam B, Ahmad M, Shahzadi A.(PubMed)
(380) Ligustrazine derivatives. Part 5: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ligustrazinyloxy-cinnamic acid derivatives as potent cardiovascular agents by Chen H1, Li G, Zhan P, Liu X.(PubMed)
(381) Roles for proteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas by Caroline A Owen(PubMed)
(382) Pharmacology of platelet inhibition in humans: implications of the salicylate-aspirin interaction GIOVANNI DE GAETANO, M.D., PH.D., CHIARA CERLETTI, PH.D., ELISABETrA DEJANA, PH.D., AND ROBERTO LATINI, M.D.(PLATELETS AND VASCULAR OCCLUSION)
(383) Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans by Miró-Casas E1, Covas MI, Fitó M, Farré-Albadalejo M, Marrugat J, de la Torre R.(PubMed)
(384) Olive oil and its phenolic constituent tyrosol attenuates dioxin-induced toxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells via an antioxidant-dependent mechanism by Kalaiselvan I1, Dicson SM1, Kasi PD1.(PubMed)
(385) Evaluation of potential antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of the olive oil by-product "alperujo", hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and verbascoside by Anter J1, Tasset I2, Demyda-Peyrás S1, Ranchal I3, Moreno-Millán M1, Romero-Jimenez M1, Muntané J3, Luque de Castro MD4, Muñoz-Serrano A1, Alonso-Moraga Á5.(PubMed)
(386) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil. by Franco MN1, Galeano-Díaz T2, López O3, Fernández-Bolaños JG3, Sánchez J4, De Miguel C5, Gil MV6, Martín-Vertedor D1.(PubMed)
(387) Tyrosol exerts a protective effect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. by Dewapriya P1, Himaya SW, Li YX, Kim SK.(PubMed)
(388) Caffeic acid, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid are potent inhibitors of 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine induced neurotoxicity by Vauzour D1, Corona G, Spencer JP.(PubMed)
(389) Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two main components of olive oil, protect N2a cells against amyloid-β-induced toxicity. Involvement of the NF-κB signaling by St-Laurent-Thibault C1, Arseneault M, Longpré F, Ramassamy C.(PubMed)
(390) Olive oil biophenols and women's health by Fistonić I1, Situm M, Bulat V, Harapin M, Fistonić N, Verbanac D.(PubMed)
(391) Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals. by Visioli F1, Galli C.(PubMed)
(392) Antiatherogenic components of olive oil. by Visioli F1, Galli C.(PubMed)
(393) The effect of olive oil on osteoporosis prevention by García-Martínez O1, Rivas A, Ramos-Torrecillas J, De Luna-Bertos E, Ruiz C.(PubMed)
(394) Olive oil in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after artificial menopause. by Liu H1, Huang H1, Li B1, Wu D1, Wang F1, Zheng Xh1, Chen Q1, Wu B1, Fan X1.(PubMed)
(395) Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern? by Yannakoulia M1, Kontogianni M1, Scarmeas N2.(PubMed)
(396) Employing Alzheimer disease animal models for translational research: focus on dietary components by Grossi C1, Ed Dami T, Rigacci S, Stefani M, Luccarini I, Casamenti F.(PubMed)
(397) Olive-oil-derived oleocanthal enhances β-amyloid clearance as a potential neuroprotective mechanism against Alzheimer's disease: in vitro and in vivo studies. by Abuznait AH1, Qosa H, Busnena BA, El Sayed KA, Kaddoumi A.(PubMed)
(398) Modulation of early stress-related biomarkers in cytoplasm by the antioxidants silymarin and quercetin using a cellular model of acute arsenic poisoning by Soria EA1, Eynard AR, Bongiovanni GA.(PubMed)
(399) Cytoprotective effects of silymarin on epithelial cells against arsenic-induced apoptosis in contrast with quercetin cytotoxicity by Soria EA1, Eynard AR, Bongiovanni GA.(PubMed)
(400) Hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) in antitubercular drugs and alcohol models by Obogwu MB1, Akindele AJ2, Adeyemi OO1.(PubMed)
(401) Silymarin, the antioxidant component and Silybum marianum extracts prevent liver damage. by Shaker E1, Mahmoud H, Mnaa S.(PubMed)
(402) Neuroprotective effect of silibinin in diabetic mice by Marrazzo G1, Bosco P, La Delia F, Scapagnini G, Di Giacomo C, Malaguarnera M, Galvano F, Nicolosi A, Li Volti G.(PubMed)
(403) Neuroprotective effect of silymarin in a MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease by Pérez-H J1, Carrillo-S C2, García E3, Ruiz-Mar G2, Pérez-Tamayo R4, Chavarría A5.(PubMed)
(404) Neuroprotective effect of pAkt and HIF-1 α on ischemia rats.by Liu BN1, Han BX1, Liu F1.(PubMed)