Monday, 23 September 2019

Cranberry in the Prevention of Advanced Glycation (AD) Expression

By Kyle J. Norton

Advanced glycation end is a by produces formed by protein or fat combine with sugar caused by cooking meat at high temperature.

The products have been found to affect metabolic health.

Most common causes of AGEs are from the diet, particularly in people who follow the Western diet with high saturated and trans fat, a lot of red meats and processed foods.

Low levels of AGEs may not be a problem, however, overexpression of AGEs can induce oxidative stress, leading to inflammation and damage proteins, lipid and sometimes alternation of cells DNA.

In other words, AGEs initiates the production and free radicals and free radical a chain reaction that can not be stopped until all electrons in the outer ring paired or inhibited by antioxidants.

Accelerated formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products have been found to increased hyperglycemia or oxidative stress, leading to age-related and chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, neurodegenerative diseases, osteoarthritis and also non-diabetic atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure.

Some researchers suggested that modern life byproducts AGEs are the results of the promotion of the processed food diet.

Dr. Chetan Sharma, Amarjeet Kaur, the lead scientist in the assessment of AGEs, wrote, "As modern diets are largely heat-processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)".

And, "The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and aging,... The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs".

The results strongly suggested the link of the modern diet with highly processed food is a leading cause of chronic diseases.

Cranberry is an evergreen dwarf shrub, genus Vaccinium, belongings to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern America and Southern Asia. Because of its health benefits, cranberry has been cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial profit and used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat wounds, urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of oxidative stress, researchers examined anti-glycation effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts, which are rich in anthocyanins.

Berry crude extracts (CE) yielded anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts used in the study, showed a significant effect against oxidative stress by exhibiting the free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs.

Furthermore, the berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation induced by the overexpression of glycation.

Moreover, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL) also reduced H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species production and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia by decreasing H₂O₂-induced neuron cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia involved in inflammation.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD".

Taken altogether, cranberry may be considered a remedy for the treatment of AD, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects by Ma H1,2,3, Johnson SL4,5, Liu W6, DaSilva NA7,8, Meschwitz S9, Dain JA10, Seeram NP. (PubMed)

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