Friday, 22 February 2019

Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana), The Best for the Prevention and Treatment of Liver cancer

By Kyle J. Norton

Herbal Cascara sagrada processed a bioactive compound emodin may have a significant and potential effect in reducing the risk and treatment of liver cancer, according to studies.

Liver cancer is a medical and chronic condition caused by irregular cell growth in the liver tissues, due to the alternation of cell DNA.

The liver organ is one of the organs with a lack of nerve tissue, therefore liver cancer does not induce pain until the later stage.

At the advanced stage of liver cancer, the cancer cell may travel a distance away to infect other tissues and organs, leading to secondary metastasis.

According to the statistics provided by the Canadian Cancer Society, every year, approximately, 1,900 men and 580 women are diagnosed with liver cancer, causing the death of 950 men and 270 women.

In 2017, 2,500 Canadians were diagnosed with liver cancer and 1,200 Canadians died from liver cancer.

Compared to the early stage of other cancer, the 5 years survival rate in the early stage diagnosis is only 31% and 43% of people with liver cancer diagnosed at stage 0 and 1.

The exact causes of liver cancer are unknown. Hoever, chronic infection with hepatitis virus, cirrhosis, gentic preposition, a medical condition of diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and excessive alcohol consumption are some of the most prevalent risk factors of liver cancer, epidemiologically.

Dr. Chuang SC, the lead scientist in the concern of excessive alcohol drinking in risk of liver cancer, wrote, "Compared to individuals who never drank or drank at very low frequencies, the meta-relative risk (mRR) forever drinkers was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.16-1.42) and 1.46 (95% CI 1.27-1.65) for case-control studies".

And, "The dose-response relation between alcohol and liver cancer was apparent with RR = 1.08 (95% CI 1.04-1.11) for 12 g/day (~1 drink), 1.54 (95% CI 1.36-1.74) for 50 g/day, 2.14 (95% CI 1.74-2.62) for 75 g/day, 3.21 (95% CI 2.34-4.40) for 100 g/day, and 5.20 (95% CI 3.25-8.29) for 125 g/day of alcohol consumption".

The finding clearly suggested, one alcoholic drink per day (~12 g/day) may be associated with 1.1 times higher liver cancer risk and risk of liver cancer increases proportionally to the volume intake per day.

Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America. The herbal bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc..

The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

Researchers on finding a natural compound for the treatment of liver cancer examined the effect of emodin, a bioactive ingredient isolated from herbal Cascara Sagrada against CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling cascade which plays an important role in the process of invasion and metastasis of liver cancer.

Where The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is a pathway involved in tumor progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and survival.

Injection of emodin inhibited the expression of CXCR4 in a dose-and time-dependent manner in HCC cells. 

Treatment of emodin demonstrated a better effect compared to the pharmacological proteasome and lysosomal inhibitors on the decrease in CXCR4 expression.

The suppression of CXCR4 expression was attributed to several mechanisms, including the inhibition of cancer cells mRNA expression, a protein associated with cancer cell proliferation and production of antigens by the innate immunity.

Furthermore, emodin treatment significantly suppressed metastasis to the lungs in an orthotopic HCC mice model and CXCR4 expression in tumor tissues.

In other human cancers cell lines, emodin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through cell cycle arrest.

According to the Western blot data, emodin inhibited cancer cell growth through a set of mechanisms, including cell degradation and protein associated with cells death programming.

Moreover, application emodin increased the expression in the initiation of cytotoxicity against HepG2 without causing harm to the nearby healthy cells.

Additionally, emodin increased the protein p53 associated with tumor suppression and decreased the protein involved in cancer cell proliferation in HepG2 cells.

These results suggest that emodin induces apoptosis in liver cancer cell line through a multifaceted complex cascade of events.

Taken altogether, herbal Cascara Sagrada processed a major bioactive compound emodin may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Emodin suppresses migration and invasion through the modulation of CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma by Manu KA, Shanmugam MK, Ong TH, Subramaniam A, Siveen KS, Perumal E, Samy RP, Bist P, Lim LH, Kumar AP, Hui KM, Sethi G.(PubMed)
(2) Emodin regulates apoptotic pathway in human liver cancer cells by Yu JQ, Bao W, Lei JC.(PubMed)
(3) Apoptosis by aloe-emodin is mediated through down-regulation of calpain-2 and ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells by Jeon W, Jeon YK, Nam MJ.(PubMed)
(4) Alcohol consumption and liver cancer risk: a meta-analysis by Chuang SC1, Lee YC, Wu GJ, Straif K, Hashibe M. (PubMed)

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