Saturday, 16 February 2019

Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana), the Natural Antibiotic Alternative

By Kyle J. Norton

Herbal Cascara sagrada processed a bioactive compound emodin may have a potential and profound effect on reducing the risk and treatment of bacterial infection, according to studies.

According to the statistic, infectious diseases caused the death of 9.2 million deaths in 2013 worldwide, represented 17% of all deaths.
Bacterial infection is a result of the battle of the immune system against the multiplication of bacteria in some selected tissue or organ by the pathogens after scaping the assault of white blood cell in the first line of immune defense.

Bacterial infection can be caused by the spread through infected person coughing and sneezing and contact with infected people or contaminated surfaces, food, and water.

However, the most common risk factors of bacterial infection are tissue damage or injury. Believe or not, most bacteria tries to enter the body through wound are killed off during the acute phase of infection.

At the early phase, immune not only stimulates the blood vessels constriction to produce palette to cover the wound but also activates the production of proinflammatory cytokines to the site of the damage with an aim to kill off all the micro-invaders.

Most common conventional medicine for the treatment of bacterial infection is an injection of antibotics.

Due to overuse of such medication, some bacteria have development antibiotics resistances, such as Staphylococcus aureus ('golden staph' or MRSA) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are now resistant to benzylpenicillin.

New antibiotics may be effective, however, they can induce some side effects. Please make sure you discuss the adverse effects with your doctor if you are currently taking some antibiotic for the treament of infection.

Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America. The herbal bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc.

The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

Researchers on finding a natural ingredient to treat bacterial infection examined the effects of emodin against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a substantial contributor to morbidity and mortality.

In 17 different strains of the bacterium selected to the study, the combined activity of EM and two antimicrobial agents (AM, OX) against all strains resulted in a fractional inhibitory concentrations index (FICI) ranging from 0.37-0.5 and from 0.37-0.75, respectively.

The effect of EM with AM and OX was found to be synergistic or partially synergistic.

Furthermore, EM reduced the minimum inhibitory concentrations of AM and OX. EM against MRSA infection.

In the comparison of the antibacterial effects of aloe- emodin and aloe and its contents of anthraquinone compounds, researchers evaluated the antibacterial activities of the extracts from the outer leaf of Aloe saponaria Haw, aloin and aloe-emodin against three Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria 

Anthraquinone, aloin exhibited higher antibacterial activity [inhibition diameter > (7. 1 +/- 0.15) mm] than Aloe-emodin.

The antibacterial activity of Aloe was attributed to the concentration of anthraquinone, aloin in a dose-dependent manner.

The results clearly suggested that Aloe-emodin exerts a significant antibacterial effect to a lesser extent compared to levels of anthraquinone, aloin.

Taken altogether, herbal Cascara Sagrada processed a high amounts emodin may be considered an alternative antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial infection, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

References(1) Synergistic effect of emodin in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Lee YS, Kang OH, Choi JG, Oh YC, Keum JH, Kim SB, Jeong GS, Kim YC, Shin DW, Kwon DY.(PubMed)
(2) [Relationship between antibacterial activity of aloe and its anthaquinone compounds].[Article in Chinese] by Tian B, Hua YJ, Ma XQ, Wang GL.(PubMed)

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