Anise together with change of diet pattern may have a potential and substantial effect in cure of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is medical condition characterized by fat accumulated in the liver tissue other than excessive consumption of alcohol.
According to the American liver foundation, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is one of most common cause of liver disease and approximately 30% (100 millions) individuals in the United States are estimated to have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Anethole, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.
In the comparison the effect of anise fruit essential oil and extract and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the Islamic Azad University conducted an experiment of 60 rats randomly divided into ten groups, six in each group with NAFLD induced by using choline-deficient diet for 90 days and followed by 30 days of treatment with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of hydroethanolic extract (AE) as well as 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of essential oil (AO)
During the course and the end of the experiment researchers showed that both applications exert significantly reverse activities in
* Increased plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol and
* Decreased high-density lipoprotein level caused by choline-deficient diet in dose-dependent manner.
Additional differentiation also found that AE and AO reduced the elevated levels of enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) which are considered as indications of either liver injure or damage caused by the acute inflammation in the experiential subject model.
However, patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may have normal transaminase levels.
Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is usually used as a maker to detect liver damage.
Observation of injection of anise AE and AO also exerted a powerful antioxidant activity in significantly lower over expression of ROS in exhibited free radical chain reaction in induction of oxidative stress to precipitate liver toxicity.
According to the St. Louis University Health Sciences Center, over expression of free radicals in the liver can damage cellular macromolecules in induction of hepatocellular injury.
Also, in histological findings, both AE and AO displayed a substantial effect in reduced macrovesicular steatohepatitis which is the leading cause of liver cancer.
Further analysis of the experiment, researchers found that both anise AE and AO demonstrated a strong effect in ameliorated lipid peroxidation induced by oxidative stress indicated by elevation of plasma level of 8-isoprostane which is correlated to the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Elevated 8-Isoprostane values activated by lipid peroxidation induced by injection of choline-deficient diet were also considered as a biomaker in patient with non alcoholic liver disease and correlated to with body mass index and total cholesterol in NAFLD but did not significantly relate to sex, age, biochemical data or iron metabolism markers in all liver diseases.
Therefore, people with high body mass index and high levels of total cholesterol levels are susceptible in increased risk of the diseases.
Taken together, intake of herbal Anise with abundant of bioactive chemical constituents and change of diet pattern with rich of whole grains, fruits and vegetables may have a highly potential in cure of non alcoholic liver disease,
However, further data collection on larger sample and multi centers clinical studies performed with human consumption during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of its anti nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) possibilities.
Intake of Anise extract should only be prescribed by related field specialist in prevention of acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Pimpinella anisum L. fruit: Chemical composition and effect on rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by Asadollahpoor A1, Abdollahi M2, Rahimi R3,(PubMed)
(2) Relationship between Diet and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review Article by Mirmiran P1, Amirhamidi Z1, Ejtahed HS1, Bahadoran Z1, Azizi F2(PubMed)