Ckickpeas lectin may have a profound effect in ameliorated risk and treatment of oral cancer, some scientists suggested.
Garbanzo beans also known as chickpea is an edible legume of genus Cicer belongings to the family Fabaceae.
The bean is considered as one of the legume containing high amount of protein and minerals.
It is one of the earliest cultivated vegetables, native to Middle East.
Oral cancer is a medical condition characterized by cell growth disorderly and uncontrollably in the mouth region. At the later stage, the cancerous cell may travel a distance away from the original site to infect healthy tissues and organs.
Investigation of the process of chickpea lectin in reduced oral cell proliferation and tumor expansion
may involve expression of several aspects and mechanisms.
According to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, chickpeas inhibited proliferation of human oral carcinoma cells at the concentration of 37.5 μg/mL (IC50) and no toxic effect.
Further analysis, chickpeas anti cancer activity probably was a result of the pro apoptotic effect induced by phychemical agent lectin found abundantly in the legume.
Lectin are types of protein with important function of binding to cell membranes and influence cell-cell interaction.
On experiential oral cancer cell line, injection of lectin showed a significant effect in inhibition of the p38α MAP kinase activated under cellular stresses in response to inflammatory cytokines and involved function in the control of many other aspects of the physiology of the cell, such as control of cell cycle or cytoskeleton remodelling,.. for cell survival of the cancer in presence of substrate (ATP).
By blocking the physiological expression of cancer cell, lectin reduced the cell proliferation and subsequently, shrinking the cancer site.
Further more, plytochemical lectin isolated from chickpeas also demonstrated a binding affinity with p38α in regulated the production of certain inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 which may have certain effects in induction of cancer growth.
The kinase p38α MAPK (p38α) is a pro-apoptotic enzyme.played a pivotal role in many biological processes, including protected cell in responses to inflammation and injury,
Specifically, in the influence of the production of inflammatory cytokines by p38α, lectin regulated the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by cells of the innate immune system IL-1β in induction of tumor growth and metastasis in cells under prolong period of inflammation.
According to general belief, many cancers have been found to arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation.
In tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α, application of chemical lectin to oral cancer site suppressed the inflammatory expression of the protein in induced cell survival and proliferation and promoted the pro apoptotic function of TNF-α in program of cell death and cell cycle arrest.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α, is cell signal protein with function in induced inflammation in the acute phrase of injure and in numbers of cellular process, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and death.
Importantly, the binding of kinase p38α MAPK also activated the function of IL-6, in inhibited the factors in induced production of inflammatory cytokines which have a negative impact in oral cell oncogenesis and enhance the expression of boosting T cell trafficking to tumor sites to induce cytotoxic effect.
IL-6, an interleukin with duo functions in both pro-inflammatory cytokines and an anti-inflammatory myokines,
Taken together, chickpea lectin may be considered as a functional food in prevention of oral cancer.
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(1) Antifungal and antiproliferative protein from Cicer arietinum: a bioactive compound against emerging pathogens by Kumar S1, Kapoor V2, Gill K1, Singh K1, Xess I3, Das SN2, Dey S1(PubMed)
(2) Cell surface interaction of annexin A2 and galectin-3 modulates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in Her-2 negative breast cancer cells by Shetty P1,2, Bargale A3,4, Patil BR5, Mohan R6, Dinesh US7, Vishwanatha JK8, Gai PB9, Patil VS3,4, Amsavardani TS10.(PubMed)
(3) Antibody and lectin target podoplanin to inhibit oral squamous carcinoma cell migration and viability by distinct mechanisms by Ochoa-Alvarez JA1, Krishnan H1, Pastorino JG1, Nevel E1, Kephart D1, Lee JJ1, Retzbach EP1, Shen Y1, Fatahzadeh M2, Baredes S3, Kalyoussef E3, Honma M4, Adelson ME5, Kaneko MK6, Kato Y6, Young MA1, Deluca-Rapone L1, Shienbaum AJ1, Yin K1, Jensen LD7, Goldberg GS1.(PubMed)