Anise may have potential and substantial relaxant effects in reduced over expression of vessel and muscle constrictions in precipitation of pain, some scientists suggested.
Anise is a flowering plant of the species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belongings to the family Apiaceae native to to Egypt and the Mediterranean region, used in traditional herbal medicine as fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, ....
Anethole, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.
According to the evaluation of Anise 3 hidroalcoholic extracts claimed to have a substantial effect in tracheal and ileal smooth muscles in 3 different concentration of doses at 40% (HA(40%)), 60% (HA(60%)) or 80% (HA(80%)) researchers found that
These results suggested that the substantial effect in tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of Anise was associated to dose dependent manner.
Injection of muscle constriction substances such as N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 3 microM) and oxyhemoglobin (10 microM) were also inhibited by HA(60%) in doses concentration dependent manner through the influence of muscle relaxation.
Moreover, in additional treatment of nitric oxide synthase(L-NAME) in induced production of vascular smooth muscle cells and enhanced the maximal contraction induced by acetylcholine, administration of HA(60%) expressed a strong activity in modulated NO contractile response, stimulated by primary transmitter released by inhibitory nerves through cyclic GMP-dependent which is found to have a implication in the regulation of smooth muscle relaxation and other independent mechanisms
Further observation also indicated that injection of HA 60% showed an insignificant effect in calcium chloride(CaCl(2))-induced muscle contraction.
Dr. Tirapelli CR, the lead author at the Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto. said, "The relaxant action displayed by Pimpinella anisum justifies its use in the folk medicine as an antispasmodic agent".
In isolated tracheal chains of the guinea pig induced by 10 microM methacholine in non-incubated tissues (group 1) and incubated tissues with 1 microM propranolol and 1 microM chlorpheniramine (group 2), to investigate the relaxant effect of Pimpinella anisum aqueous and ethanol extracts and essential oil, researchers showed that injections Anise aqueous and ethanol extracts, essential oil and theophylline, a conventional medicine used to relaxing bronchial smooth muscle in COPD and asthma patients display a substantial activity in exhibited relaxant effects in compared to those of controls.
There were no significant difference of both Pimpinella anisum aqueous and ethanol extracts in promoted muscle relaxation but both exerted lower efficacy in compared to those of theophylline.
Interestingly, the applications of essential oil and 10 nM atropine, a muscle relaxant medicine, used as nerve anticholinergic agent, blocked the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system in responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles and reduced the muscle contraction caused by methacholine, a substance used to tighten the lung muscle and air way for test of asthma.
However, researchers also found that application of all doses expressed insignificant effects in inhibited histamine (H(1)), smooth muscles, vascular endothelial cells, the heart, and the central nervous system or stimulated beta(2)-adrenergic receptor in binding to epinephrine.
Dr. Boskabady MH, after taking into account of other co founders, said, "....showed that the relaxant effect of this plant is not due to an inhibitory effect of histamine (H(1)) or stimulatory effect of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors, but due to inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors".
Taken together, Anise aqueous and ethanol extracts and essential oil may be used as adjunct herbal medicine in reduced risk of diseases associated to spasmodic muscle contraction in induction of muscle cramp accompanied by a sudden burst of pain caused by abnormal nerve stimulation or by abnormal activity of the muscles and vessels.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Antispasmodic and relaxant effects of the hidroalcoholic extract of Pimpinellaanisum (Apiaceae) on rat anococcygeus smooth muscle by Tirapelli CR1, de Andrade CR, Cassano AO, De Souza FA, Ambrosio SR, da Costa FB, de Oliveira AM.(PubMed)
(2) Relaxant effect of Pimpinella anisum on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s) by Boskabady MH1, Ramazani-Assari M.(PubMed)