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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management In Herbal Medicine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(828).
1. Cinnamic aldehyde
10. Methylhydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP)
Epidemiological studies suggested that cinnamon cocsist a sgnificant anti insulin resistance(1091)(1092)(1094) and anti metabolic syndrome(1093)(1094)(1095)(1096)(1097) properties, such as lowering total cholesterol(1093), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093) and improving high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093), may be due to its antihyperglycaemic (1091)(1093) and potential to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels(1091)(1092), liver fat(1098) and and improved glucose homeostasis(1098) properties, by regulating the mechanisms of-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism(1099), such as decreased the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokine(TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue(1100) and upregulated mRNA expression of insulin-regulated membrane trafficking(1100) and whole body glucose homeostasi(GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle(1100).
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(827a) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)
(828) The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome? by Marsh K, Brand-Miller J.(PubMed)
(1086) Popular Herbs -Cinnamonby Kyle J. Norton
(1087) Rou Gui(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1088) Herbal Cinnamon and Infertility by Kyle J. Norton
(1089) Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde in Helicobacter pylori induced gastric inflammation by Muhammad JS1, Zaidi SF, Shaharyar S, Refaat A, Usmanghani K, Saiki I, Sugiyama T.(PubMed)
(1 090) Short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on salivary anaerobes associated with halitosis by Zhu M1, Carvalho R, Scher A, Wu CD.(PubMed)
(1091) The potential of cinnamon to reduce blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance by Kirkham S1, Akilen R, Sharma S, Tsiami A.(PubMed)
(1092) Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by Pham AQ1, Kourlas H, Pham DQ.(PubMed)
(1093)Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes by Lu T1, Sheng H, Wu J, Cheng Y, Zhu J, Chen Y.(PubMed)
(1094) Turmeric improves post-prandial working memory in pre-diabetes independent of insulin by Lee MS1, Wahlqvist ML, Chou YC, Fang WH, Lee JT, Kuan JC, Liu HY, Lu TM, Xiu L, Hsu CC, Andrews ZB, Pan WH.(PubMed)
(1095) Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes by Qin B1, Panickar KS, Anderson RA.(PubMed)
(1096) Alternative and complementary treatments for metabolic syndrome by Power M1, Pratley R.(PubMed)
(1097) Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity and alters the body composition in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome by Couturier K1, Batandier C, Awada M, Hininger-Favier I, Canini F, Anderson RA, Leverve X, Roussel AM.(PubMed)
(1098) Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity by Sartorius T1, Peter A2, Schulz N3, Drescher A2, Bergheim I4, Machann J5, Schick F6, Siegel-Axel D2, Schürmann A3, Weigert C1, Häring HU1, Hennige AM7.(PubMed)
(1099) Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Cinnamomi Cassiae (Cinnamon bark) extract in C57BL/Ks db/db mice by Kim SH1, Choung SY.(PubMed)
(1100) Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of cinnamaldehyde in C57BLKS/J db/db mice by Li J1, Liu T, Wang L, Guo X, Xu T, Wu L, Qin L, Sun W.(PubMed)