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Saturday, 30 May 2015

The Holistic prevention, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome:The Lipoic acid (LA) In TCM

By Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


       Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women. Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to  continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
     In Traditional Chinese Perspective
While conventional medicine focus of using synthetic medication to induce ovulation and assisted artificial insemination for infertility couple, if the medicine fail, traditional Chinese medicine views polycystic ovarian syndrome in different approaches.

Polycystic ovary syndrome, according to traditional Chinese medicine is a medical condition characterized by accumulative of fluid over a prolonged period of time causes of dampness and phlegms(1247a)(1247b) build up on the ovaries due to the effects of vary differentiations, affecting not only the women’s menstrual cycle, but also ovulation and fertility(1247a)(1247b).
 
The Nutritional Supplements according to Traditional Chinese medicine 

 
3. Chromium
Chromium, a micro nutrient and trace mineral, found abundantly in whole grain products and certain fruits and vegetables such as broccoli, potatoes, grape juice, and oranges, and lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts,(1504) plays an important in the metabolism  and storage of fats, carbohydrates and protein in the body(1503).
The US dietary guidelines for adequate daily chromium intake were lowered in 2001 from 50–200 µg for an adult to 30–35 µg (adult male) and to 20–25 µg (adult female), according to Journal of academic of nutrition and dietetics(1505).
Chronic chromium deficiency may cause symptoms of severely impaired glucose tolerance(1506)(1507), weight loss(1506)(1508), and a metabolic encephalopathylike confusional state(1506), induce risk of prediabetes(1509)in predicted diabetes(1509)(1510)(1513) and atherosclerosis(1510),...

Strong evidences from epidemiological studies suggested that chromium exhibits anti metabolic syndrome(1511)(1514)(1515) and cardiovascular disease(1511)(1512)(1513) including hypertension(1516)(1517), obesity(1518)(1519), elevated fasting plasma glucose(1520)(1521), high serum triglycerides(1522)(1523), and dyslipidaemia(1510)(1521), etc,, , anti insulin resistance(1510)(1519), anti depression, anti diabetes(1513)(1512), etc,.... effects.

5. Lipoic acid (LA)
 Lipoic acid, also known as alpha lipoic acid(ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid, play an essential for aerobic metabolism to turn nutrients into energy and remove wastes through cellular respiration(1524), found abundantly in spinach, broccoli, yams, potatoes, yeast, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, carrots, beets, rice bran, especially in organic red meat, etc,....... The supplement has shown to be effective in ameliorate blood glucose(1531)(1532) through reduced suppression of insulin expression  in β-cell(1535), reduced nerve damage induced diabetes(1533)(1534), neurodegeneration disease(1558)(1559), skin aging(1560)(1561), improved antioxidant(1527)(1528)(1530), anti inflammatory(1526)(1528) and immune status(1525)(1526)(1527)(1528), reduced symptoms of vitamin E deficiency(1529), etc,....

According to studies, LA also processes anti cancer(1570)(1571)(1572),  anti insulin sensitivity(1532)(1564), and anti metabolic syndrome(1532)(1563)(1562), such as hypertension(1564)(1565), obesity(1566)(1567), elevated fasting plasma glucose(1568)(1569) and dyslipidaemia(1556)(1557), etc,... effects of which may contribute to management and treatment of women with PCOs, depending to differentiation.

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References
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)  

(1246) [Clinical study of area of Jiangsu province of polycystic ovarian syndrome correlation distribution of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome type and improper diet]. [Article in Chinese] by Feng Y, Gao YP.(PubMed)
(1247) [Preliminary study on relationship of disease-syndrome-symptom of ovulatory disorder infertility based on factor analysis]. [Article in Chinese] by Li M, Ma K, Shan, J.(PubMed)
(1247a) A Comprehensive Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) bny by Liqin Zhao 

(1524) Lipoic acid (LA)(Wikipedia)
(1525) Alpha-lipoic acid is an effective inhibitor of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by Baur A1, Harrer T, Peukert M, Jahn G, Kalden JR, Fleckenstein B.(PubMed)
(1526) Alpha-lipoic acid effects on brain glial functions accompanying double-stranded RNA antiviral and inflammatory signaling by Scumpia PO1, Kelly-Scumpia K1, Stevens BR2.(PubMed)
(1527) α-Lipoic acid enhances endogenous peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by Wang KC1, Tsai CP, Lee CL, Chen SY, Lin GJ, Yen MH, Sytwu HK, Chen SJ.(PubMed)
(1528) Effects of lipoic acid on immune function, the antioxidant defense system, and inflammation-related genes expression of broiler chickens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets by Li Y1, Ma QG2, Zhao LH3, Wei H4, Duan GX5, Zhang JY6, Ji C7.(PubMed)

(1529) Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prevents symptoms of vitamin E deficiency by Podda M1, Tritschler HJ, Ulrich H, Packer L.(PubMed)
(1530) Oxidative stress participates in the breakdown of neuronal phenotype in experimental diabetic neuropathy by Hounsom L1, Corder R, Patel J, Tomlinson DR.(PubMed)
(1531) Circulating irisin and glucose metabolism in overweight/obese women: effects of α-lipoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid by Huerta AE1, Prieto-Hontoria PL, Fernández-Galilea M, Sáinz N, Cuervo M, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ.(PubMed)
(1532) Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates insulin resistance and improves glucose metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice. by Yang Y1, Li W2, Liu Y2, Li Y2, Gao L3, Zhao JJ4.(PubMed)
(1533) Activation of JNK in sensory neurons protects against sensory neuron cell death in diabetes and on exposure to glucose/oxidative stress in vitro by Price SA1, Hounsom L, Purves-Tyson TD, Fernyhough P, Tomlinson DR.(PubMed)
(1534) Nitrosative injury and antioxidant therapy in the management of diabetic neuropathy by Cowell RM1, Russell JW.(PubMed)
(1355) Alpha-lipoic acid treatment reverses 2-deoxy-D-ribose-induced oxidative damage and suppression of insulin expression in pancreatic beta-cells by Koh G1, Yang EJ, Kim MK, Lee SA, Lee DH.(PubMed)
(1556) Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells via AMPK-dependent autophagy by Hahm JR1, Noh HS2, Ha JH3, Roh GS4, Kim DR5.(PubMed)
(1557) Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in PCOS by Macut D1, Bjekić-Macut J, Savić-Radojević A.(PubMed)
(1558) (R)-(+)-α-lipoic acid protected NG108-15 cells against H₂O₂-induced cell death through PI3K-Akt/GSK-3β pathway and suppression of NF-κβ-cytokines by Kamarudin MN1, Mohd Raflee NA1, Hussein SS1, Lo JY1, Supriady H1, Abdul Kadir H1.(PubMed)
(1559) Oxidative modification of lipoic acid by HNE in Alzheimer disease brain by Hardas SS1, Sultana R, Clark AM, Beckett TL, Szweda LI, Murphy MP, Butterfield DA.(PubMed)
(1560) The clinical efficacy of cosmeceutical application of liquid crystalline nanostructured dispersions of alpha lipoic acid as anti-wrinkle by Sherif S1, Bendas ER2, Badawy S1.(PubMed)
(1561) Hypo-collagenesis in photoaged skin predicts response to anti-aging cosmeceuticals by Sachs DL1, Rittié L, Chubb HA, Orringer J, Fisher G, Voorhees JJ.(PubMed)
(1562) The effect of lipoic acid and vitamin E therapies in individuals with the metabolic syndrome by Manning PJ1, Sutherland WH, Williams SM, Walker RJ, Berry EA, De Jong SA, Ryalls AR.(PubMed)
(1563) α-Lipoic acid regulates lipid metabolism through induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by Chen WL1, Kang CH, Wang SG, Lee HM.(PubMed)
(1564) Prevention of hypertension, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid by El Midaoui A1, de Champlain J.(PubMed)
(1565) The effects of α-lipoic acid on aortic injury and hypertension in the rat remnant kidney (5/6 nephrectomy) model by Ergür BU1, Cilaker Mıcılı S, Yılmaz O, Akokay P.(PubMed)
(1566) Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: a tool for obesity therapy? by Carbonelli MG1, Di Renzo L, Bigioni M, Di Daniele N, De Lorenzo A, Fusco MA.(PubMed)
(1567) Anti-obesity effects of alpha-lipoic acid mediated by suppression of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase by Kim MS1, Park JY, Namkoong C, Jang PG, Ryu JW, Song HS, Yun JY, Namgoong IS, Ha J, Park IS, Lee IK, Viollet B, Youn JH, Lee HK, Lee KU.(PubMed)
(1568) α-lipoic acid can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired fasting glucose by Xiang G1, Pu J, Yue L, Hou J, Sun H.(PubMed)
(1569) The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycaemia during OGTT in impaired glucose tolerance by Xiang GD1, Sun HL, Zhao LS, Hou J, Yue L, Xu L.(PubMed)
(1570) Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases by Berkson BM1, Rubin DM, Berkson AJ.(PubMed)
(1571) Chemopreventive potential of alpha lipoic acid in the treatment of colon and cervix cancer cell lines by Damnjanovic I, Kocic G, Najman S, Stojanovic S, Stojanovic D, Veljkovic A, Conic I, Langerholc T, Pesic S.(PubMed)
(1572) The importance of 1,2-dithiolane structure in α-lipoic acid for the downregulation of cell surface β1-integrin expression of human bladder cancer cells by Yamasaki M1, Soda S, Sakakibara Y, Suiko M, Nishiyama K.(PubMed)